with extraordinary pomp, to take poffeffion of his new dignity. 9)

The viceroy recovers his liberty.

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But admidst the disorder and turbulence which accompanied this total diffolution of the frame of government, the minds of men, loose from the ordinary reftraints of law and authority, acted with such capricious irregularity, that events no less extraordinary than unexpected followed in a rapid succession. Pizarro had scarcely begun to exercise the new powers with which he was invested, when he beheld formidable enemies rise up to oppose him.

The viceroy having been put on board a vessel by the judges of the audience, in order that he might be carried to Spain under custody of Juan Alvarez, one of their own number; as foon as they were out at fea, Alvarez, either touched with remorse or moved by fear, fell at the feet of his prisoner, declaring him from that moment to be free, and that he himself, and every person in the ship, would obey him as the legal representative of their sovereign. Nugnez Vela ordered the pilot of the vessel to shape his course towards Tumbez, and as foon as he landed there, (CE. 8.1544.) erected the royal ftandard, and resumed his functions of viceroy. Several persons

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q) Zarate, lib. V. C. 8 - 10. Vega, p. II. lib. iv. c. 13 - 19.

Gomara , c. 159.- 163. Fernandez , lib. i. c. 18 - 25. Hera rera, dec. 7. lib. viji. c. 10-20,

of note, to whom the contagion of the feditious spirit which reigned at Cuzco and Lima had not reached, instantly avowed their resolution to support his authority, r) The violence of Pic , zarro's government, who observed every individual with the jealousy natural to usurpers, and who punished every appearance of disaffection with rigour, foon augmented the number of the viceroy's adherents, as it forced some leading men in the colony to fly to him for refuge. While he was gathering such strength at Tumbez, that his forces began to afl'ume the appearance of what was considered as an army in America, Diego Centeno, a bold and active officer, exasperated by the cruelty and oppreffion of Pizarro's lieutenant governor in the province of Charcas, formed a conspiracy against his life, cut him off, and declared for the viceroy. s)

Pizarro marches against him. 1545. Pizarro, though alarmed with those appear. ances of hoftility in the opposite extremes of the empire, was not disconcerted. He prepared to assert the authority to which he had ate tained, with the spirit and conduct of an officer accustomed to command, and marched directly against the viceroy as the enemy who was near

I) Zarate, lib. v. c. 9. Gomara , c. 165, Fernandez, lib. i

c. 23. Herrera, dec. 7. lib. viii. c. 15. s) Zarate, lib. v. C. 18. Gomara, c. 169. Herrera, dec. 7.

lib, ix, G. 27.

eft as well as most formidable. As he was master of the publick revenues in Peru, and most of the military men were attached to his family, his troops were so numerous, that the viceroy, unable to face them, retreated towards Quito. Pizarro followed him; and in that long march through a wild mountainous country, suffered hardships and encountered difficulties, which no troops but those acustomed to serve in America could have endured or surmounted. t) The viceroy had scarcely reached Quito, when the van guard of Pizarro's forces appeared, led by Carvajal, who, though near fourscore, was as hardy and active as any young foldier under, his command. Nugnez Vela instantly abandoned a town incapable of defence, and with a rapidity more resembling a flight than a retreat, marched into the province of Popayan. Pizarro continued to pursue; but finding it impossible to overtake him, returned to Quito. From thence he dispatched Carvajal to oppose Centeno, who was growing formidable in the southern provinces of the empire, and he himself remained there to make head against the viceroy. u)

The viceroy defeated and slain. By bis own activity, and the assistance of Benalcazar, Nugnez Vela foon assembled four t) See NOTE XVI. u) Zarate , lib. v. c. 15, 16 - 24. Gomara, c. 167. Vega,

P. 11, lib. iv. c. 25 - 28. Fernandez , lib. i. c. 34. 40.
Herrera , dec. 7. lib. viii. c. 16. 20-27.

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hundred men in Popayan. As he retained, amidft all his difafters, the same elevation of mind, and the same high sense of his own dignity, he rejected with disdain the advice of some of his followers, who urged him to make overtures of accomodation to Pizarro, declaring that it was only by the sword that a contest with rebels could be decided. With this intention he marched back to Quito. Pizarro, reJying on the superior number and still more on the discipline and valour of bis troops, advanced (Jan. 18. 1546.) resolutely to meet him. The battle was fierce and bloody, both parties fighting like men who knew that the poffeffion of a great empire, the fate of their leaders, and their own future fortune, depended upon the issue of that day. But Pizarro's veterans pushed forward with such regular and well directed force that they soon began to make impression on

their enemies. The viceroy, by extraordinary exertions, in which the abilities of a commander and the courage of a soldier were equally displayed, held victory for some time in fuipense. At length he fell , pierced with many wounds; and the route of his followers became general. They were hotly pursued. His head was cut off, and placed on the publick gibbet in Quito, which Pizarro entered in triumph. The troops assembled by Centeno were dispersed soon after by Carvajal, and he himself compelled to fly to the mountains, where he remained for

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several months concealed in a cave. 'Every person in Peru, from the frontiers of Popayan to those of Chili, submitted to Pizarro; and by his fleet, under Pedro de Hinojosa , he had not only the unrivalled command of the South - Sea, but had taken poffeffion of Panama, and placed a garrison in Nombre de Dios, on the opposite side of the isthmus, which rendered him master of the usual avenue of communication between Spain and Peru. y)

Pizarro advised to assume the fovereignty of Peru.

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After this decisive victory , Pizarro and his followers remained for some time at Quito, and during the first transports of their exultation, they ran into every excess of licentious indulgence, with the riotous fpirit usual among low adventurers upon extraordinary success. But, amidst this dissipation, their chief and his confidents were obliged to turn their thoughts sometimes to what was serious, and deliberated with much solicitude concerning the part that he ought now to take. Carvajal, no less bold and decisive in counsel than in the field, had from the beginning warned Pizarro, that in the career on which he was entering, it was vain to think of holding a middle course;

y) Zarate, lib.' v. c. 31, 32. Gomara , c. 170. Vega, p. II. lib. iv.

C. 33, 34. Fernandez, lib. i. c. 51 -54. Herrera,

dec. 7. lib. x. C. 12. 19-22. dec. 8. lib. i, c. I-3 Benzo, lib, iii. c. 12.

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