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The malcontents chuse Gonzalo Pizarro to be their leader.

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But however general the indignation was against such proceedings, it is probable the hand of authority would have been strong enough to Tuppress it, or to prevent its bursting out with open violence, if the malcontents had not been provided with a leader of credit and eminence to unite and to direct their efforts. From the time that the purport of the new regulations was known in Perd', every Spaniard there turned his eyes towards Gonzalo Pizarro, as the only person able to avert the ruin with which they threatened the colony. From all quarters, letters and addresses were sent to him, conjuring him to stand forth as their common protector, and offering to support him in the attempt with their lives and fortunes. Gonzalo, though inferior in talents to his other brothers, was equally ambitious, and of courage no less. daring. The behaviour of an ungrateful court towards his brothers and himself, dwelt continually on his mind, Ferdinand a state prisoner in Europe ; the children of the governor in custody of the viceroy, and fent aboard his fleet, himself reduced to the condition of a private citizen in a country, for the discovery and conquest of which Spain was indebted to his family. These thoughts prompted him to seek for vengeance, and to assert the rights of his family, of which he now confia

ROBERTSON Vol. III.

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dered himself as the guardian and the heir. But as no Spaniard can easily furmount that veneration for his fovereign which is interwoven in his frame, the idea of marching in arms against the royal standard filled him with horror. He hesitated long , and was still unresolved, when the violence of the viceroy, the universal call of his countrymen, and the certainty of becoming soon a victim himself to the severity of the new laws, moved him to quit his relidence at Chuquisaca de la Plata, and repair to Cuzco. All the inhabitants went out to meet him, and received him with transports of joy as the deliverer of the colony. In the fervour of their zeal, they elected him procurator general of the Spanish nation in Peru, to solicit the repeal of the late regulations. They empowered him to lay their remonftrances before the royal audience in Lima, and upon pretext of danger from the Indians , authorised him to march thither in arms. Under fanction of this nomination Pizarro took (1544.) poffeffion of the royal treasure, appointed officers, levied foldiers, reized a large train of artillery which Vaca de Castro had deposited in Guamanga, and set vut for Lima, as if he had been advancing against a publick enemy. Disaffection having now affumed a regular form, and being united under a chief of such distinguished name, many persons of note resorted to his standard ; and a considerable part of the troops, raised by the viceroy

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Before Pizarro reached Lima, a revolution had happened there, which encouraged him to proceed with almost certainty of success. The violence of the viceroy's adminiftration was not more formidable to the Spaniards of Peru than his overbearing haughtiness was odious to his associates, the judges of the royal audience. During their voyage from Spain , fome symptoms of coldness began to appear. p) But as soon as they entered upon the exercise of their respective offices, both parties were so much exasperated by frequent contefts, arising from interference of jurisdiction, and contrariety of opinion, that their mutual disgust foon grew into open enmity. The judges thwarted the viceroy in every measure, fet at liberty prisoners whom he had confined, justified the malcontents, and applauded their remonftrances. At a time when both departments of government should have united against the approaching enemy, they were contending with each other for fuperiority.

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) Zarate, lib. v. C. I. Gomara, c. 156, 157. Vega, p. II. lib. iv. c. 4-12.

Fernandez, lib. I. C. 12 - 17. Herrera, dec. 7, lib, yii. C. 18, &c. lib, yiii. c. - 5

» Gonara, s. 171.

The viceroy imprisoned. The judges at length prevailed. The viceroy, universally odious, and abandoned even by his own guards, was seized (Sept. 18.1544.) in his palace, and carried to a desert ifland on the coast, to be kept there until he could be sent home to Spain.

Views of Pizarro.

The judges, in consequence of this, hava ing assumed the supreme direction of affairs into their own hands, issued a proclamation fufpending the execution of the obnoxious laws, and sent a message to Pizarro, requiring him, as they had already granted whatever he could request, to dismiss his troops, and to repair to Lima with fifteen or twenty attendants. They could hardly 'expect that a man fo daring and ambitious would tamely comply with this requisition. It was made,

It was made, probably, with no fuch intention, but only to throw a decent veil over their own conduct; for Cepeda, the prefident of the court of audience, a pragmatical and aspiring lawyer, seems to have held a secret correspondence with Pizarro, and had already formed the plan, which he afterwards executed, of devoting himself to his service. The imprisonment of the viceroy, the usurpation of the judges, together with the universal confusion and anarchy confequent upon events so fingular and inexpected, opened new and

past prospects to Pizarro. He now beheld the fupreme power within his reach. Nor did he want courage to push on towards the object which fortune presented to his view. Carvajal, the prompter of his resolutions, and guide of all his actions, had long fixed his eye upon it as the only end at which Pizarro ought to aim. Instead of the inferior function of procurator for the Spanish settlements in Peru, he openly demanded to be governor and captain-general of the whole province, and required the court of audience to grant him a commission to that effect. At the head of twelve hundred men, within a mile of Lima, where there was neither leader nor army to oppose him, such a request carried with it the authority of a command. But the judges, either from unwillingness to relinquish power, or from a desire of preserving some attention to appearances, hesitated, seemed to hesitate , about complying:

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He assumes the governinent.

Carvajal, impatient of delay, and impe. tuous in all his operations, marched into the city by night, seized several officers of distinction obnoxious to Pizarro, and hanged them without the formality of a trial. Next morning the court of audience issued a commission in the emperor's name, appointing Pizarro governor of Peru, with full powers ,

civil as well as military, and he entered the town that day

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