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'I cannot say what are all the conditions necessary to produce a rainbow; but the following are so constant, that I will venture to predict a rainbow is never seen without them,—the sun shining through the edge of a cloud, and a dark sky in the opposite direction to receive the spectrum. Without the least visible change in the sun or in the curtain, all the changes in the rainbow may be foreseen and foretold by marking the motions of the intervening cloud. My attention was recalled to this subject by a friend telling me, a few days ago, that he had lately seen a most striking proof of my theory of the rainbow. A rainbow appeared and disappeared repeatedly as the son was more or less covered by the edge of a cloud. I had myself an opportunity, within these two weeks, of witnessing the same thing at sea. By observing, for a short time, the motion of the cloud, I predicted to those around me that the rainbow, which had continued for several minutes, and was still as bright as ever, would not be seen above two minutes longer, which was the case. The sun passed rapidly from under the cloud, and the rainbow as instantly disappeared.'
P. 233. September 20. Fast Of Ramazan.—■ The above day is the commencement of this fast among the Mohammedans, of which Mr. Martyn gives the following account, as it was kept at Shiraa in the year 1811:—
'All the family had been up in the night to take an unseasonable meal, in order to fortify themselves for the abstinence of the day. It was curious to observe the effects of the fast in the house. The master was scolding and beating his servants; they equally peevish and insolent; and the beggars more than ordinarily importunate and clamorous. At noon all the city went to the grand mosque. My host came back with an account of new vexations there. He was chatting with a friend, near the door, when a great preacher, Hagi Mirza, arrived with hundreds of followers. "Why do you not say your prayers?" said -< the new comers to the two friends. "We have finished,'' said they. "Well," said the others, M if you cannot pray
a second time, you had better move out of the way." Rather than join such turbulent zealots, they retired. The reason of this unceremonious address was, that these loving disciples had a desire to pray all in a row with their master, which, it seems, is the custom. There is no public service in the mosques; every man there prays for himself.
'Coming out of the mosque, some servants of the prince, for their amusement, pushed a person against a poor man's stall, on which were some things for sale, a few European and Indian articles, also some valuable Warsaw plates, which were thrown down and broken. The servants went off without making compensation. No cazi will hear a complaint against the prince's servants.
'Mirza Ibraheem never goes to the mosque, but he is so much respected, that nothing is said: they conclude that he is employed in devotion at home. Some of his disciples said to Seid AH, before him, "Now the Ramazan is come, you should read the Koran, and leave the Gospel." —" No;" said his uncle, "he is employed in a good work; let him go on with it." The old man continues to inquire with interest about the Gospel, and is impatient for his nephew to explain the evidences of Christianity, which I have drawn up.
'22d. Sunday.—My friends returned from the mosque, full of indignation at what they had witnessed there. The former Governor of Bushire complained to the Vizier, in the mosque, that some of his servants had treated him brutally. The Vizier, instead of attending to his complaint, ordered them to do their work a second time, which they did, kicking and beating him with their slippers, in the most ignominious way, before all the mosque. This unhappy people groan uuder the tyranny of their governors;
has God favoured all the sons of Japheth, by persuading them to embrace the Gospel! How dignified are all the nations of Europe compared with this nation! Yet the people are clever and intelligent, and more calculated to become great and powerful than any of the natious of the East, had they a good government and the Christian religion.
'October 1st.—Thousands every day assemble at the mosque; it is quite a lounge with them. Each, as soou as he has said his prayers, sits down and talks to his friend.
Happy Europe! How
The multitude press to hear Hagi Mahomed Hasan. One day they thronged him so much, that he made some error in his prostrations; this put him into such a passion, that be swore that Omar's curse might come upon him if he preached to them again. However, a day or two after, he thought better of it.—At a garden, called Shah Chiragh, in which is the tomb of a brother of one of the Imans, who was killed on the spot, a miracle is wrought every Ramazan. The Mootuwulli, or proprietor of the garden, in whose family it bas been for ages, finds its supposed sanctity abundantly profitable, as he is said to make £2000 ayear of it. To keep alive the zeal of the people, who make their offerings there every day, he procures a villager, who is at first sick, and crying to Ali for help, and then on the appointed day recovers. This year a man was recovered of the palsy, and our servants came full of it. Though this farce is played off every year, the simpletons are never undeceived. Presents of sheep, fowls, sweetmeats, money, flowed in upon the Mootuwulli, who skilfully turned all to the best advantage. Those who wished to see the man's face, were to pay so much; those who were anxious to touch him, were to pay so much more; and so on.
'Two days in the Ramazan, tragedies were acted at our house, in the women's court. Two or three men, dressed in the Khan's court robes, spouted and sung for an hour, before an immense concourse of women, all veiled. The subject, the first day, was the death of Mahomet; the second, that of Iman Hosyn.
'18th of October.—The Ramazan ended, or ought to have ended, but the moon disappointed them. The Moollahs not having seen the new moon, would not allow the fast to be over, and the people were, in consequence, all in confusion; for, not having eaten in the night, they were not at all disposed to go through ttie day fasting. At last, some witnesses appeared, who vowed that they had seen the silver bow. These were from the Prince; but the Moollahs said they would not admit them till seventy-two of the same kind bore the same testimony. This was no great number for a prince to produce; so the seventy-two appeared, and the feast was proclaimed.'-— Sargent's Memoir oj the Rev. H. Martyn, B.D., 2d edit. pp. 403-410.
*** For the various Saints, see the word. The Koman Numerals
Ablot of Unreason, 290'
— Saints' Day, 267
— Souls, 267
Anemone, wood, 84 note, 126
Annunciation of B. V. M. 309
Apple, spots on, 261
April explained, 90
April fools, 90-92
Arthur, a poem, noticed, 123 note
Ascension Day, 141
Ash-keys, embryo of future plant
Astronomical Occurrences in
August, explained, 211—in Lon-
Aurora Borealis, 53
Autumn, lines on, 238, 239, 254
Banks, Sir J. 169
79, 117, 240, 255—poetically
Blackcap, song of, 122
, SirW. 58
Bulkeley, Sir R. 176
Capel, Lord, 58
Carling Sunday, 95
Carnival, at Rome, 5—at Venice, 6
Carol, Christmas, 291
Catholic Religion, 72
Catullus translated, xliii note
Caxton, W. 163
Christmas Day, 288-293
, flowers at, 306
Dahlia, cultivation of, 258
roses, lines on, 306
—— Monday and Tuesday, 102
Edystone Light-house, 217
England, climate of, 279—lines
, lines on, 169, 180, 199
Frost, beauty of, 25—lines on a
Gallies, French, 244
Hackney Coaches, 72
fay-making, lines on, 186
Herrings, custom respecting, 242
, Philemon, 33
Holy Cross, 233
■ Thursday, 141
Holyoak, 155 note
Ice, remarks on, 48
January, explained, 1—lines on, 3