'I cannot say what are all the conditions necessary to produce a rainbow; but the following are so constant, that I will venture to predict a rainbow is never seen without them,—the sun shining through the edge of a cloud, and a dark sky in the opposite direction to receive the spectrum. Without the least visible change in the sun or in the curtain, all the changes in the rainbow may be foreseen and foretold by marking the motions of the intervening cloud. My attention was recalled to this subject by a friend telling me, a few days ago, that he had lately seen a most striking proof of my theory of the rainbow. A rainbow appeared and disappeared repeatedly as the son was more or less covered by the edge of a cloud. I had myself an opportunity, within these two weeks, of witnessing the same thing at sea. By observing, for a short time, the motion of the cloud, I predicted to those around me that the rainbow, which had continued for several minutes, and was still as bright as ever, would not be seen above two minutes longer, which was the case. The sun passed rapidly from under the cloud, and the rainbow as instantly disappeared.'

P. 233. September 20. Fast Of Ramazan.—■ The above day is the commencement of this fast among the Mohammedans, of which Mr. Martyn gives the following account, as it was kept at Shiraa in the year 1811:—

'All the family had been up in the night to take an unseasonable meal, in order to fortify themselves for the abstinence of the day. It was curious to observe the effects of the fast in the house. The master was scolding and beating his servants; they equally peevish and insolent; and the beggars more than ordinarily importunate and clamorous. At noon all the city went to the grand mosque. My host came back with an account of new vexations there. He was chatting with a friend, near the door, when a great preacher, Hagi Mirza, arrived with hundreds of followers. "Why do you not say your prayers?" said -< the new comers to the two friends. "We have finished,'' said they. "Well," said the others, M if you cannot pray

a second time, you had better move out of the way." Rather than join such turbulent zealots, they retired. The reason of this unceremonious address was, that these loving disciples had a desire to pray all in a row with their master, which, it seems, is the custom. There is no public service in the mosques; every man there prays for himself.

'Coming out of the mosque, some servants of the prince, for their amusement, pushed a person against a poor man's stall, on which were some things for sale, a few European and Indian articles, also some valuable Warsaw plates, which were thrown down and broken. The servants went off without making compensation. No cazi will hear a complaint against the prince's servants.

'Mirza Ibraheem never goes to the mosque, but he is so much respected, that nothing is said: they conclude that he is employed in devotion at home. Some of his disciples said to Seid AH, before him, "Now the Ramazan is come, you should read the Koran, and leave the Gospel." —" No;" said his uncle, "he is employed in a good work; let him go on with it." The old man continues to inquire with interest about the Gospel, and is impatient for his nephew to explain the evidences of Christianity, which I have drawn up.

'22d. Sunday.—My friends returned from the mosque, full of indignation at what they had witnessed there. The former Governor of Bushire complained to the Vizier, in the mosque, that some of his servants had treated him brutally. The Vizier, instead of attending to his complaint, ordered them to do their work a second time, which they did, kicking and beating him with their slippers, in the most ignominious way, before all the mosque. This unhappy people groan uuder the tyranny of their governors;

has God favoured all the sons of Japheth, by persuading them to embrace the Gospel! How dignified are all the nations of Europe compared with this nation! Yet the people are clever and intelligent, and more calculated to become great and powerful than any of the natious of the East, had they a good government and the Christian religion.

'October 1st.—Thousands every day assemble at the mosque; it is quite a lounge with them. Each, as soou as he has said his prayers, sits down and talks to his friend.


Happy Europe! How

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The multitude press to hear Hagi Mahomed Hasan. One day they thronged him so much, that he made some error in his prostrations; this put him into such a passion, that be swore that Omar's curse might come upon him if he preached to them again. However, a day or two after, he thought better of it.—At a garden, called Shah Chiragh, in which is the tomb of a brother of one of the Imans, who was killed on the spot, a miracle is wrought every Ramazan. The Mootuwulli, or proprietor of the garden, in whose family it bas been for ages, finds its supposed sanctity abundantly profitable, as he is said to make £2000 ayear of it. To keep alive the zeal of the people, who make their offerings there every day, he procures a villager, who is at first sick, and crying to Ali for help, and then on the appointed day recovers. This year a man was recovered of the palsy, and our servants came full of it. Though this farce is played off every year, the simpletons are never undeceived. Presents of sheep, fowls, sweetmeats, money, flowed in upon the Mootuwulli, who skilfully turned all to the best advantage. Those who wished to see the man's face, were to pay so much; those who were anxious to touch him, were to pay so much more; and so on.

'Two days in the Ramazan, tragedies were acted at our house, in the women's court. Two or three men, dressed in the Khan's court robes, spouted and sung for an hour, before an immense concourse of women, all veiled. The subject, the first day, was the death of Mahomet; the second, that of Iman Hosyn.

'18th of October.—The Ramazan ended, or ought to have ended, but the moon disappointed them. The Moollahs not having seen the new moon, would not allow the fast to be over, and the people were, in consequence, all in confusion; for, not having eaten in the night, they were not at all disposed to go through ttie day fasting. At last, some witnesses appeared, who vowed that they had seen the silver bow. These were from the Prince; but the Moollahs said they would not admit them till seventy-two of the same kind bore the same testimony. This was no great number for a prince to produce; so the seventy-two appeared, and the feast was proclaimed.'-— Sargent's Memoir oj the Rev. H. Martyn, B.D., 2d edit. pp. 403-410.

For 1821.

*** For the various Saints, see the word. The Koman Numerals
refer to the Introduction.


Ablot of Unreason, 290'
Accipitres, xxix
Advent Sunday, 285
Alexander the Great, 174
All Fools' Day, 90

Saints' Day, 267

Souls, 267

Anemone, wood, 84 note, 126

Annunciation of B. V. M. 309

Anseres, Ix

Apple, spots on, 261

April explained, 90

April fools, 90-92

Arthur, a poem, noticed, 123 note

Ascension Day, 141

Ash-keys, embryo of future plant

in, 241
Ash-Wednesday, 57
Assumption, 214

Astronomical Occurrences in
January 1821, 18; February,
45; March, 74; April, 114;
May, 148; June, 178; July,
197; August, i2I ; September,
236; October, 251; November,
274; December, 297

August, explained, 211—in Lon-
don, 230

Aurora Borealis, 53

Autumn, lines on, 238, 239, 254

Awk, lxi


Banks, Sir J. 169
Barley-harvest, custom at, 130
Bathing, advantages of, 209—lines

on, 210
Becket, Thomas a, 192
Bede, Venerable, 140
Bees, 82-84, 154-157, 206
Birds, their structure, xfi—nest-
ling and incubation, xvi—lan-
guage, xxii—classification, xxix
—-land-birds, ib.—bird-catching,
xlvi—water-birds, liv—flight and
plumage, lxii—migration, lxvi,

79, 117, 240, 255—poetically
described by Drayton, 1—-uses of
birds, lxxxi—select books on,
Ixxxviil—sleep of birds, 121

Birdcaiching, xlvi

Bittern, lvii

Blackcap, song of, 122
Bohemian chatterer, xliii
Boswell, Mr. 150
Browne, Sir Thomas, 249

, SirW. 58

Bulkeley, Sir R. 176
Bullfinches, mischief of, 50
Bunting, xliii
Bustard, liv
Butcher-bird, xxxii
Butterfly, progress of, 153—lines
on, 154- -observations on, 226

Capel, Lord, 58

Ccpercailie, lii

Carling Sunday, 95

Carnival, at Rome, 5—at Venice, 6

Carol, Christmas, 291

Catholic Religion, 72

Catullus translated, xliii note

Caxton, W. 163

Charislia, 43

Christmas Day, 288-293

, flowers at, 306

Circumcision, 1
Clare, Robert, 195
Classification of birds, xxix
Climate of England, 279
Clobury, R. G. 32
Cock of the wood, lii
Colquhoun, P. 110
Coltsfoot, giant, 85 note
Conception of B. V. M. 287
Conde", Prince of, 139
Conversion of St. Paul, 13—proces-
sion of, ib.
Convulsionaires, 92
Cormorant, lxi
Corpus Christi, 309
Cotton, C. 112


Crane, Ivii
Craven, W. 14
Cromwell, anecdote of, 17
Crow, xxxvi—mischief of, 78
Crown-imperial, 156 note
Crecj/fcrion, represented, 98—vo-
luntary, 92
Cuckoo, lines on, 120
Cuckoo-flower, 85 note
Curate's Garden, 181
Curlew, lviii —lines to, 257

Dahlia, cultivation of, 258
Dandelion, 85 note
December, explained, 231

roses, lines on, 306

Dog-Aiys, 190
Doig, David, 65
Drill-plough, lines on, 89

Eagle, xxx
Earthquake in Asia, 166
Easter Ceremonies at Jerusalem,

Day, 101

Eve, 101

—— Monday and Tuesday, 102
Edmund, king and martyr, 273
Edward, king of the West Saxons,

Edystone Light-house, 217
Elm-leaf, spot on, 282
Elm-trees, a poem, 124
Ember week, 61

England, climate of, 279—lines

on, 280
Epiphany, 4—at Venice, ib.
Evelyn, Mary, 61

Fairlop-oak, 159
Falcon, xxxi
Farquhar, Sir W. 71
Farm yard, lines on, 189
Feathers, xiii
February, explained, 30
Feralia, S9
Ferrers, Earl, 137
Fttt Dieu, 309
Finches, lines on, xlv note
Fire-side, English, 23
Flowers, remarks on, 180

, lines on, 169, 180, 199

Fogs, 277

Frost, beauty of, 25—lines on a
frosty day, 51

Gallies, French, 244
Gallinae, li
Gamma Moth, 257
Glow-worm, 229
Goat-sucker, xliv
Goldfinch, xlv
Good Friday, 98
Gorcock, liii, and note
Gower, John, 247
Grails, liv
Grasshopper, 183
Grosbeak, pine, xliii
Grous, black, lii—red, ib.— white,

Guinea-Jowl, liv
Gull, Ix


Hackney Coaches, 72
Halcyon, xxxv
Handel, 144
Harlow, G. H. 31
Harvest-home, 223
Hastings, Warren, 215
Haydn, 147

fay-making, lines on, 186
Heart's-ease, lines on, 29, 160
Heath, lines on, 226
Hedgehog, lines on, 305 note
Helston Flora, 138
Hen-harrier, xxxi
Herald-moth, 242
Heron, lvii

Herrings, custom respecting, 242
Holland, lines on, 38

, Philemon, 33

Holy Cross, 233

■ Thursday, 141

Holyoak, 155 note
Horace imitated, 216
Horkey, 224
Hurd, Bishop, 140
Hurricane, lines on, 285

Ice, remarks on, 48
Incubation, xix
Infant, lines on, 295
Innocents' Day, 295
Introduction, xi
Invention of the Cross, 137
Ivy, lines to, 28 note

Jackdaw, xxxiv

January, explained, 1—lines on, 3
Jay, xxxviii

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