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take its victim. The mother, on hearing this, turned to the queen, and, grasping her knees, cried out, “Oh, Madam, you are, a mother, pity the feelings of one who bears the same name !” The queen was touched ; for she could not resist the pathetic expressions of this unhappy woman and her family : the, therefore, became at once their advocate, and a petitioner for the boon that they were praying for. The king with tood the entreaties of his confort for a while ; but at last suffered himself to be moved by her prayers, and the distress of this unfortunate family, whom he soon restored to happiness, by saying to the parents, “ Go, good people, your son lives ; let him be grateful to you, who, having once given him life, have been fortunate enough to preserve it to him in a moment when he had no reason to hope for it.” Having said this, he walked away ab. ruptly, not to be overwhelmed by the expressions of gratitude which his clemency could not fail to excite."
ON SL A V E R Y. NUMBER VII. Extract from a Sermon preached before the Society instituted for
the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, by the Bishop
of Chester, February 21, 1783. .
T such distinguifhed pre-eminence in misery, of almost every kind, and which so exactly corresponds to all that variety of wretchedness enumerated in the text,* that one would almost be tempted to think our Saviour actually alluded to them, and had their case, among the other great events of futurity, in his eye : for when he speaks of the “ poor, the broken-hearted, the blind, the captive, the bruised," who can forbear thinking on that unhappy race of beings, the African flaves in our WeftIndia colonies? If there are any human creatures in the world, who concentrate in themselves every species of evil here enumerated, who are at once poor, and broken-hearted, and blind, and captive, and bruised, our negro slaves are beyond all comparison those creatures. Even in a literal sense this description is in several circumstances a just picture of their situation ; but, in a figurative and spiritual meaning, it may, with the strietest truth, be applied to them. They are in general considered as - 3 X 2
mere * Luke vi. 17, 18, 19, 20.
mere machines and inftruments to work with, as having reither understandings to be cultivated, nor souls to be saved. To the greater part, not lo much as the mere ceremony of baptism is administered, and scarce any enjoy sufficient leisure and affitance for a proper degree of instruction in the doctrines and the duties of religion. Sunday is indeed a day which they are generally indulged with for their own use ; but they spend it commonly no: in attending public worship, or receiving private in tiruction, but inventing and trafficking with each other, or in coltivating their own little allotment of land ; for which, except in one island, that of Jamaica, they have seldom any other time al. lowed them. Thus it comes to pass, that in the British islands there are upwards of 400,000 human beings, of wbom much the greatest part live most literally without God in the world, without any knowledge of a Creator or a Redeemer, with. out any one principle of natural or revealed religion, withoor the idca of one moral duty, except that of performing that daily task, and escaping the Icourge that constantly hangs over them. A condition such as this, in which so many thousands of our unoffending fellow-creatures are involved, cannot but er. cite the compassion of every feeling heart; and it must be a matter of no small surprize, and the deepest concern, that, cxcepting a few instances, which deserve the highest praise, no effecual means have yet been put in practice, either on the part of those individuals who are most nearly interested in the welfare of these poor wretches, or of the government under which they live, to rescue them out of this spiritual captivity, so much worse than even that temporal one (heavy as it is) to which they are condemned. Almoit the only confiderable attempts that have been made to deliver them from this deplorable state of ignorance, have been made by this venerable society, which has had this obiect, among others, constantly in view, and in the prosecution of it has not been sparing either in labour ar es pence. But it must be owned, that our endeavours have not hi. therto been attended with the desired success. This, however, has been owing not to what some are willing to suppose, an im. pollibility in the nature of the thing itself, nor to any absolate incapacity in the Africans to receive or retain any religious knowledge, but to accidental, and, I trust, surmountable causes ; to the prejudices formerly entertained by many of the planters, against the instruction and conversion of their llaves ; to the want which, the latter have experienced of sufficient time and opportunity for this purpose ; to the abject, depressed, degraded, uncivilized, unbefriended ftate, in which the negroes have been so long suffered to remain ; to very little attention paid to them
on the part of government; to the almost total want of laws to protect and encourage them, and to soften, in fome degree, the rigours of their condition.
· [To be continued occasionally.]
LETTER 10 a YO'UNG Man entering into the World. · Dear Sir, T Beg leave, by this letter, to call your attention to the confiI deration and practice of modelty. I doubt not but you are acquainted with the definition of the term ; I therefore mean more to enforce upoa you the practice of it, than directly to define it.
Modesty is a virtue so suitable to human nature, and so excel. lent in itself, that whoever is distinguished by it, in whatever period of life he may be in, we cannot withhold from him our ap. probation and efteem ; and this is peculiarly the case, if he is in the early part of his life.
Man is a weak and imperfect being. Humanum efl errare. It is unsuitable to the nature of a being, whose actions are tar. nished by imperfection, to have an uniform confidence in his own shallow intellects, to trust entirely his own judgement and opinions, by shewing a contempt of the advice and help of others. On the contrary, for a being who feels his own weakness and imperfection, it is ingenuous, it is noble in him, to be diffident of himself, to solicit the advice of others, and to be open to conviction. This is his true and proper posture. Modeity gives a shade to his weaknesses and errors. And if all this be true respecting man, however much improved, however much experienced, of whatever age or rank in life ; how much more muft it be true and applicable to him, when he is unimproved and inexperienced ? But the pity is, that ignorance and inex. perience are often the causes of obstinacy and confidence. . Young and ignorant people are not aware how much there is to learn; and they think they know every thing, when compa. ratively they know nothing. On the contrary, it has ever been observed, that the more wise men have known, they were of all the least obstinate and oftentatious, the most cautious and open to conviction, because a world of objects opens to their view, which lie hid from the ignorant,
* Were men to live cozval with the sun
A young man who possesses the inherent seeds of good fenk, fhould endeavour to fuppose bimself in the character of a man of knowledge and experience, and then consider in what view the crude, forward, and unformed sentiments of a young man, would appear to him, when set forth in oppofition to his better judgement and more extensive knowledge. They indeed wool appear in contemptible colours. This would enable him to acquire a modest disposition, prevent him from contradi&ing his fuperiors, preserve him in his true character, and incline him to offer his sentiments more for his own improvement, than meaning to instruct others. For a young man to trust chiefly his own judgement and opinions, is reprehensible ; for him to have no opinion of his own, is a weakness. For him to have no confidence in himself, is an extreme alfo : this would, is a great measure, unfit him for the practice of the many duties of life, which are attended with difficulties ; acd most certainly would check that laudable and well directed ambition, which is the fource of every brave and noble sentiment and action. Adopi, therefore, the medium,-a modeft confidence in yourself and your opinions, and you will do well.
I would farther recommend to you to exercise your ingepaity in distinguishing modesty from an aukward bashfulness. The former is shocked by all indecencies in every situation : the last is often anaccompanied by real modesty ; in which case, although in the company of fuperiors, and dazzled with exterior elegance, it would be struck with ftupidity ; yet, in another fituation, could, with deliberation and presence of mind, depart from de cency, and even the common refinements of humanity, True modesty has a steady uniformity of character, always easy and unembarrassed. There are, indeed, some very good modef men, who, through the effect of education, want of intercourse with the world, and natural timidity of temper, cannot bring themselves up to this happy uniformity of disposition. And thefe may be on a par with the former in the duties of life, aod the avoiding of indecencies; but you cannot but perceive how much the firft is superior to the laft : keep it, therefore, in your eyes.-As modefty is a virtue eminently suitable to human nature, and a peculiar ornament to a young man, so it is excel. lently calculated to preserve him in every other virtue, to forward him in the acquisition of knowledge, and to render him happy in life.
In the journey of life, there are a thousand avenues full of foliciting charms, which often prove too effectual in leading the forward and curious from the direct road of virtue. In these he pleases his fancy, and gratifies his inclinations ; insensible, as
the time, of the hurt he receives on the one hand, and of what he loses on the other. The yielding once, prepares him to yield a second and a third time with ftill more ease, until he is perhaps bewildered altogether. But the truly modest young man, being less forward, less curious, less confident in himself, more cautious, and having a more delicate sense of propriety and regularity, is not so easily captivated. Does he resist one temptation-he does a second with more ease. The farther he advances, he becomes the better acquainted with his journey ; until he arrives at that firmness of mind, which spurns with contempt all the flattering language, all the artful folicitations, of those objects, which please che fancy and gratify the senses, but wound and degrade the foul.-In sort, modesty is a perpetual constraint in favour of virtue ;-the dangerous and disagreeable scenes which the forward, oftentatious and confident, are too often betrayed with, should, I think, be a strong reason for you to cultivate this virtue.
If error and prejudice prevail in the world, every benevolent man, who ardently wishes these to be eradicated, looks up with · an anxious concern to the young and succeeding generation.
For accomplishing his benevolent designs, to it he directs his efforts, as affording the moft apparent success. And certainly, he who is most ready to receive his instructions, who gives him the moft patient and thankful attention, and, in short, who is of the most teachable difpofition, has the surest chance to procure most of his attention, esteem and regard. To convince you of this, fuppose yourself in his fituation, would you not prefer a humble, affable, and diffident papil, in place of one conceited, confident, and full of himself ? Most certainly you would.Every sensible man will study, in a variety of respects, to benefit a youth who ingenuously confesses his ignorance, by his interroga. cions and patient attention. On the contrary, few will be so ready to exert themselves in favour of one who Thews himself conceited, diffatisfied, and unthankful. Crude and senseless objections to methods of instruction and good intentions, will discourage and disgult, but never attract, or give pleasure or fa. tisfaction. And poor is the young man who is his own inalter. Even wise men, when they have no friend to deliberate with, fall into many oddities and fancies ;--how much more does the selfilh, inexperienced young man, who will not deign to have a superior!
Mark the modest man, his countenance indicates contentment. He is distinguished by a calm and serene deportment. He accommodates himself to every circumstance, fituation, and occurrence of life. Although bold in duty, and in every laudable