his talents, that in 1734 a public amphitheatre was established by the republic of Berne, in which he taught anatomy. He was appointed pisician to the hospital ; he was honoured with the care and arrangement of the public library, and the cabinet of medals. These he catalogued, examined, and set in order, Juring the first year of his appointment.

His own country, however, was not alone to reap the advantages of his extraordinary abilities King George II. ettablished a botanical, anatomical, and surgical professorship, in the university of Gorringen, and conferred it on Haller ; whose labours, he juttiy, imagined, would promote, in the highest degree, the prosperity of that seminary. He accepted the royal gift, and with his wite and tiree children left Berne, his.native country, in which his youth, at present, was a bar to his receiving any very lucrative itare employment.

His journey was fanguing and tedious. His own health was infirin : he was a ftranger to the country: the distance was great, and children are not easily conveyed. Just at his arrival the carriage was overturned, and his beloved Marianne, whose personal attractions had engaged his heart before marriage, as her tweerneis of diipoution had ensured it afterwards, died in consequence of some injury which the received by this accident.

Haller did not immediately recover this tock : his friends and relations were at a distance ; he was in a land of Itrangers. At lengt.), however, the rectitude of his mind taught him to search for confolation in literary society, in scientific disquisitions, and in pursuing the dictates of religion. His colleagues foun discovered that common report had not bestowed such ample praises on him without foundation. They exerted their utmoit efforts to divert ris melancholy ; and Mr. Huber, a man of great learning and extendive knowledge, was invited to Got· tin ven, by the regency of Hanover, in order to assist him in his first estays.

The daties in which Haller was employed at Gotcingen were important, and his labours were unremitted. During this period, his most elaborate performances were composed, his literary reputation was eitabiiihed, and his name immortalized.

He now chole physiology as the principal object of his studies. It had long been deg: aded by unmeaning syttems, and clogged with an unintelligible jargon of terms. Haller, however, was an accurate and profound natural philosopher, and he did not allow that he faily comprehended every part of this extensive branch of medicine, 'till he had fpeat thirty years in laborious researches, and in a numerous body of memoirs had discussed very fully every question of difficulty and importance that re


lated to respiration, the circulation of the blood, the formation of the bones, and generation. • To his farft edition he gave the homble title of Efray. In this work he examined the opinions of every author, concerning pbysiology. Several he rejected, feveral he explained more fully, but upon all he did not decide. . The publication of this work forms the era of a revolution in anatomy. Haller's disciples boatted that phyfiology was so longer fubfervient to the wildness of metaphysical notions. It was established by facts, and verified by experiment. · This book was attacked by several authors. In all his dit putes he conducted himself with a caodour equal to his abilivies. He was, however, very poignantly chagrined by Lane wie, who jocularly formed a system of materialism upon his discoveries respecting a property in animated nature, which be wamed irritability. From his infancy his religious principles had been untainted ; and he observed, with horror, chat he 133 keld op to the eyes of the world as an abetter of materialiG. He wrote an answer, to which his antagonist replied. Haller thea prepared a long and elaborate refutation, which he was going to publish when Lametrie died ; and he then discovered that his delicacy had made him the dupe of irony.


To the PRINT E R. --SIR,

Paris, Otober 1, 1783. SUICIDE is thought to be common only in England; bæt

I bave great reafon 10 believe that it is much more common in France. A gentleman of my acquaintance, who attends the Hotel-Dieu, where there are constantly 3000 patients, affered me ebat fcarce a day passes over, in wbich he does not fee fome unfortunate wretches brought to the hospital, who had made an at. tempt upon their lives ; some by shooting, fome by banging, others by poifon, and not a few by ftabbing themselves, or cutting their throats. However, suicide is generally attempted in France in moments of despair, or in paroxysms of love or jca. Joufy. I myself saw a woman, a few days ago, throw herself out of a window, three ftories high, in the Fauxbourg St. Ho more ; her kull was fractured by the fall, both arms and a leg were broken ; she lived long enough, and had juft voice enough

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** to say, that she had caught her sweetheart, who was a barber's

bov, in company with another woman : she died while some * charitable people were carrying her to the Hotel. Dies. There -1 was, however, lately a suicide committed from far different mo. 2x: tives than those of defpair, love, or jealousy; for religion,

which ought to guard mankind againft such attempts, was what 2: occafioned this melancholy affair ; or rather, it was a religious

phrenfy, and not religion itself, that prompted the unfortunate En person who fell a victim to it. He was an Englishman, and an

officer of diftin&tion in the British Fast-India Company's service, - where he held the rank of major : for the sake of his family, I Es will not mention his name. For some time he had been fabis og ject to a kind of melancholy, which led him to seek retirement ; price and a few days before he proceeded to carry his fatal resolation

into execution, he was seen to pass a great many hours in fere

vent prayer ; he prayed on his knees, and frequently bowed himwho felf to the ground, which he kissed most devoutly, as if to exbol press his humility. Nothing could less indicate an intention of

fuicide than this conduct ; and, therefore, the people of the house, not suspecting that this would end in a dismal tragedy, were highly edified at the manner in which the major dedicated to devotion that time which young men, like him, (for he was a young man,) spent in idleness, or in vicious courses. On the fatal morning that he intended should have been his lak, he role early; and at about five o'clock his servant, who lay in the next apartment, was wakened with a noise in his master's room :

he ran in to see what was the cause of it, and, to his astonithTilment, he found the major lying on the floor, weltering in blood:

he had placed the point of the fword to the pit of his ftomach,
and thrown himself upon it: the fword was fhivered in four
pieces ; and one of them, about four inches long, remained in'
his body. As soon as he saw his fervant enter, he called to him
to pun inftantly for a piftol, with which he wanted to put an end
to the most excruciating pains, which were occasioned by the
wound: the man asked if it would not be better for him to run
for a furgeon? The major, after a moment's hesitatjon, replied,
6 Well, do what you please."

This unfortunate gentleman was not known to any of his countrymen in Paris, the duke of Manchester alone excepted, to whom, merely as the British ambassador, he had once paid his refpects, but without any previous acquaintance or recommendation. The news of this melancholy affair having reached his grace's ear, he immediately sent his surgeon to the major : the piece of the sword was extracted, and every pollible aflittauce was given to him. He bore his pains with calm religna.

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tion, and frequently expressed a regret for having committed the rash act that had occasioned them : he said, however, that he was thoroughly convinced, that, as he fancied he had acted from a divine impulse, God would receive him into the manfions of the blessed, and that the angels would rejoice at his triomphant entry into paradise : these were nearly his own words. He seemed, however, to feel much mental pain, from an opioida that his conduct would be condemned by mankind, and his memory held in execration. He lived to see the third day, when the ambassador's surgeon having called to see him, he focad Do pulse in his arm, and just a thread of pulle towards the head. He then broke to his patient, in the most judicious magner be was able, the dismal tidings that his di{olution must be near at hand. The major was surprized at the news, and secmed Dot to believe it ; for the violent pains that had tortured him for the two preceding days bad: totally subsided; and he said he feka moft sweet tranquillity of body :- however, it was the moroñcation of the parts lately affected, that had deprived chem of feosibility. The surgeon juft went out of the room, to order something to wet his patient's mouth; and when he returned, in less than three minutes, he found him speechless, and his eyes fixed : in a little time after he expired. The body was to have been opened the evening of the morning on which he died ; but io careful is the police of this city, that though death was produced by violent means, and there was not even the shadow of ground to suppose a possibility of recovery, fill the lieuteeanigeneral of the police sent an order that the body thould not be opened for twenty-four hours more. At the end of coat time the operation was performed, and it was found that the sword had cut through an artery, and pierted the liver ; so that the wcurd was ab Initio mortal, and it was a matter of surprize how be could live to long after having received it. The ambassador took possession of his effects, for the use of the family of the deceased, and sealed up every thing with his own feal ; bis grace behaving from the beginning in a manner that did him much honour, and ought to endear him to his countrymen. He provided for the funeral in a decent manner, and the remains of this unhappy gentleman were deposited in the same burying ground where those of Mr. Maddison had been laid a few wecks betore.-From the papers found in his trunks, it was easy to fee that the major's heart had been one of the very best : his great object seemed to be of use to mankind ; and even the most unfortunate, and criminal, did not escape his attention. Among other papers, was found a memorial to the Comme de Vergenoes, in favour of the galley llaves whom he had seen at Maríciles ;

it contained a plan by which their sufferings might be alleviated, by means that would prove highly beneficial to society.What pity that a wrong head should destroy a heart that beat with universal philanthropy!




. To the P R I N T E R.:

SIR, T VERY man is easily persuaded into a belief that he has

e either seen or heard something which it might be useful for the world to know, that his experience has exceeded that of his neighbours, and that from a recital of the hardships which he has suffered, or the advantages wbich he has gained, others might learn in their turn to avoid the same paths to evil, or to pursue the good by ways in which he has already succeeded, In pointing out advantages to others, he hopes ultimately to be. nefit himself, and thus expects either reputation or a dinner, as want has made him hungry, or ambition inspired him with a thirst for pre-eminence. By which of these motives I am actu. ated in writing, you will easily guess ;- I have been too long the dupe of fortune, to expect any thing more from her als fistance ; and my ambition has been for so long a time gradu. ally declining, that if the following lines procure me five Thil. lings, they will answer all the present expectations of, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

TITLE-PAGE VAMP. " Ah ! who can tell how hard it is to climb

The steep where Fame's proud fummit shines afar,
Ah ! who can tell how many a foul sublime

Hath felt the influence of malignant ftar,

And wag'd with fortune an eternal war!
Check'd by the scoff of pride, and envy's frown,

And poverty's unconquerable bar,
In life's low vale remote hath pin'd alone,

Then sunk into the grave unpitied and unknown.” «« Wits live obfcurely, men care not how, or die obscurely,

men care not when." VOL. II. 46. 3 N


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