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by informing him that the gentleman sent to fill the post given to him, had been assalinated, while he was cxerting himself to fave a worthy citizen from the fury of some enraged foldiers, quartered in the neighbpurhood.
This information gave an instantaneous turn to Harry's ideas; and he was smote with remorte for having, in the extremity of defpondence, actually lified up his hand against himself. The fuiden numbness, by which the accomplishment of his design was obstructed, he now considered as a providential event, and he breathed an ejaculation, full of contrition and graiitude, to the best of Beings. Mrs. Saunderson, with equal fervour, joined her pious effusions to his, and both of them appeared to so much advantage in the eyes of Mr. Conyers, who had brough the interesting intelligence above-mentioned, that he could not help bcllowing the highest encomiums on their religious, as well as conjugal demeanour.
As Harry's repentance was fincere, it was acceptable : his thanksgivings were favourably heard, and his chearful fubmiflion rewarded. An old gentleman, from whom he expected nothing, dying soon after the day of his deliverance from dejection, left him an eltate of eight hundred a year, and near four thousand pounds in the funds.
How little do we know what to wish for! In the most prospc. rous situation, we ought not to be too much elated : under the severelt disappointments, we ought not to abandon ourselves to despair !
An ACCOUNT of the late EARTHQUAKES in CALABRIA, · SICILY, &c. Communicated to the ROYAL Society by Sir WILLIAM HAMILTON.
[Continued from page 298.] T HE environs of Laureana, which stands on an elevation,
are the garden of Edenitself ; nothing I ever saw can be compared to it. The town is considerable ; but as the earthquake did not come on suddenly, as in the plain, not a life was loft there ; but, from a sickness occasioned by hardships and fripht, fiftytwo have since died.
I lodged in the barracks of a sensible gentleman of Mileto, Don Domenico Acquanetta, who is a principal proprietor of this town. He attended me next day to the two tenements, called the Macini and Vaticano, mentioned in the former part of this Vol. II, 40.
letter, and which were said to have changed their situation by the earthquake. The fact is true, and easily accounted for. These tenements were situated in a valley, surrounded by high grounds; and the surface of the earth, which has been removed, had been probably long undermined by little sivulets which come from the mountains, and now are in full view on the bare spot che tenements had deserted. These rivulets have a sofficiently rapid course down the valley, to prove its not being a perfect level, as was reprefented. I suppose the earthquake to have opened some depositions of rain water in the clay-bills which surround the valley ; which water, mixed with the loose soil, taking its course suddenly through the undermined surface, lifting it up with the large olive and mulberry-trees, and a thatched cottage, floated the entire piece of ground, with all its vegetation, about a mile down the valley, where it now stands with most of the trees ercct. These two tenements may be aloot a mile long, and half a mile broad. I was Mewn several deep cracks in this neighbourhood, not one above a foot in breadth ; but which, I was credibly assured, had opesed wide during the earthquake, and swallowed up an ox, and near one hundred goats, but no countrymen, as was reported.
In the valley above-mentioned I saw the same fort of bol. lows, in the form of inverted cones ; out of which, I was alsured, that bot water and sand had been emitted with violence during the earthquakes, as at Rofarno; but I could not find any one that could positively afirm that the water had been really hot, although the reports which government received affirm it. Some of the sand thrown out here with the water has a ferrugi. nous appearance, and seems to have been acted upon by fire. I was told that it had also, when fresh, a strong smell of fulphur, but I could not perceive it.
From hence I went through the famae delightful country to the town of Poliftene. To pass through so rich a country, and not see a single house standing on it, is most melancholy indeed : wherever a house stood, there you see a heap of ruins, and a poor barrack, with two or three mournful figures fitting at the door, and here and there a maimed man, woman, or child, crawling upon crutches. Ioftead of a town, you see a confused heap of ruins, and round about them a number of puor huts, or barracks, and a large one to serve as a church, with toe church bells hang. ing upon a sort of low gibbet ; every inhabitant with a dole ol countenance, and wearing some token of having loit a parent,
I travelled to 's days in the plain, in the midit of such misery as cannot be described. The force of the earthquake was to great here, that ail the inhabitants of the towns were buried ei
ther alive or dead under the ruins of their houses in an intant.
I observed that the town of St. Giorgio, on a hill about two miles from Polistene, though rendered uniohabitable, was by no means levelled like the towns in the plain. There was a nunnery at Poliitene. Being curious to see the nuns that had escaped, I asked the marquis to flew me their barracks; but it seems only one out of twenty three had been dug out of her cell alive, and she was fourscore years of age.
After having dined with the marquis in his humble barrack, near the ruins of his very magnificent palace, I went through a fine wood of olive, and another of chesnut trees, to Casal Nu.. ovo, and was shewn the spot on which stood the house of my unfortunate friend the princess Gerace Grimaldi, who, with more than four thousand of her subjects, loit her life by the suu. den explosion of the 5th of February, (for so it appears to have been,) chat reduced this town to atoms. I was told by some here, who had been dug out of the ruins, that they felt their houses fairly lifted up, without having had the least previous notice. In other towns, some walls and parts of houses are standing; but here you' neither distinguish streets nor houses ; all lie in one confused heap of ruins. An inhabitant of Casal Nuovo told me, he was on a hill at the moment of the earthquake, overlooking the plain ; when, feeling the shock, and turning towards the plain, instead of the town, he saw in the place of it a thick cloud of white duit, like smoke, the natural effect of the crushing of the buildings, and the mortar flying off.
From hence I went through the towns of Caitellare and Mi. licusco (both in the same condition as Casal Nuovo) to Terra Nuova, situated in the same lovely plain, between two rivers, which the torrents from the mountains have, in the course of ages, cait deep and wide charms in the foit fandy ciay foil, of which the whole plain is composed. Ac Terra Nuova, the ra. yine or chasm is not lefs than five hundred feet deep, and three
2 S 2 .
quarters cf a mile broad. What causes a confusion in all the accounts of the phænomena, produced by this earthquake in the plains, is the not having sufficiently explained the nature of the foil and fituation. They tell you that a town has been thrown a mile from the place where it ftood, without mentioning . word of the ravine : that wcods and corn-fields had been removed in the same manner; when, in truth, it is but upon a large scale, what we fee every day on a finaller, when pieces of the sides of hollow ways, having been undermined by rain-2ters, are detached into the bottom by their own weight. Here, from the great depth of the ravine, and the viole..t motion of the earth, two huge portions of the earth, on which a great part of the town stood, consisting of lome hundreds of hoofes, were detached into the ravinė, and nearly across it, about half a mile from the place where they stood ; and, what is mok extraordinary, several of the inhabitants of those hooses, who had taken this fiozuiar leap in them, were nevertheless dug oat alive, and some unhurt. I spoke to one myself who had taken this exti aordinary journey in his house, with his wife and a maid fervant : neither he nor his maid fervant were hurt; but he told mc his wife had been a little hurt, but was now nearly recovered I happened to ask him what hurt they had received > His at. fwer, though of a very serious nature, will nevertheless, I sa fure, make you smile, Sir, as it did me. He said, she had both her legs and one arm broken, and that she had a fracture on her kull, so that the brain was visible.--It appears to me, that the Calabrefi have more firmness than the Neapolitans, and they really seem to bear their excesiive present misfortune with a trent philofophic patience.
Of lixteen hundred inhabitants at Terra Nuova, only for hundred escaped alive. My guide there, who was a prieft anis physician, bad been fut up in the ruins of his house by the art shock, of the earthquake, and was blown out of it, and delivered by the succeeding Thock, which followed the first immediarely. There are many well-attefed instances of the same having bappened elsewhere in Calabria. In other parts of the plain, fireate near the ravine, and near the town of Terra Nuova, I saw many acres of land, with trees and corn-fields, that had been detached into the ravine, and often without having been over. turned ; lo that the trees and crops were growing as well as if they had been planted there. Other such pieces were lying a the bottom, in an inclined situation, and others again that b: been quite overturned. In one place, two of these im sente pieces of land having been detached oppofite to one another, and Alled the valley, and topped che courte of the river, the waters of which were forming a great lake; and this is a true state of what the accounts mention of mountains that walkes, and joining together, kopped the course of the river, and formed a lake. At the moment of the earthquake the river disappeared here, as at Roiarno, and returning soon after, overflowed the bottom of the ravine about three feet in depth, so that the poor people that had been thrown with their houses into the ravine from the top of it, and had escaped with broken bones, were now in danger of being drowned. I was assured that the water was falt, like that of the sea ; but this circumitance seems to want confirmation. The same reason I fave given for the sudden disappearing of the river Metauro at Rolarno, will account for the like plænomenon here, and in every part of the country where the rivers dried up at the moment of the earthquake.
The whole town of Mollochi di Sotto, near Terra Nuova, was likewise detached into the ravine, and a vineyard of many acres near it lies in the boti in of the ravine, as I saw, in a perfect order, but in an inclined situation. There is a foot-path through this vineyard, which has a fingular cffect, confidering its present impracticable situation. Some water-mills, that were on the river, having been jammed between two such detached pieces as above described, were lifted up by them, and are pow seen on an elevated situatien; many feet above the level of the river. Without the proper explanations, it is no wonder that fuch facts Should appear miraculous. I observed in several parts of the plaini, that the soil with timbcr-trees and crops of corn, conósting of many acres, had sunk eight and ten feet above the level of the plain ; and in others, again, I perceive 1 ic nad risen
as many. It is neceffary to remember, that the fil of the plain · is a clay, mixed with fand, which is eaily moulded into any
thape. In the plain, near the sputs from whence the above. mentioned pieces had been detached into the ravine, there were several parallel cracks ; fo that had the violence of the shocks of the earthquake continued, these pieces also would have probably followed. I remarked conitantly in all my journey, that near every ravine, or hollow way, the parts of the plain ad.. joining were full of large parallel cracks. The earth cracking with violence from fide co hide, and having a support on one fide only, accounts weil for this circumstance...
[To be continued.]
ON SL A VERY. NUM BER I. IN an age (lays the abbe Raynal, in his History of both the 1 Indies,) wherein so many errors are boldly laid open, it would