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No one, that has not had the experience, can conceive the horrid state of the roads in Calabria, even in this season, por the superior excellence of the horses of the country. All agreed here, that every fhock of the earthquake seemed to come with a rumbling noise from the westward, beginning usually with it horizontal motion, and ending with the vorticose, which is the motion that has ruined moit of the buildings in this province. The same observation I found to be a general one throughout this province. I found it a general observation also, that be. fore the fhuck of an earthquake, the clouds seemed to be fixed and motionless; and that, immediately after a heavy thower of rain, a shock quickly followed.

I spoke with many here, and elsewhere, who were thrown down by the violence of some of the shocks; and several peze fants in the country told me, that the motion of the earth v3 fo violent, that the heads of the largest trees almost reached the ground from side to side ; that during the shock, oxeo and ha: 163 extended their legs wide asunder, not to be thrown down, and that they gave evident signs of being senable of the approach of the shock. I myself observed, that the parts that have suffered most by the earthquakes, the braying of an ass, the neighing of a horse, or the cackling of a goose, always drove people opt at their barracks, and was the occasion of many pater-softers 20 ave-marias being repeated, in expectation of a thock.

From Monteloene I descended into the plain, having pulled through many towns and villages which had been more or les rained, according to their vicinity to the plaio. The town of Meleto, ftuated in the bottom, I saw was totally destroyed, and not a house standing. At some distance I saw Scriano anche noble Dominican convent a heap of ruins ; but as my obje was not to vidit ruins, but the greater phænomena produced by the earthquakes, I went on to Rosarno. I must, henever, fort mention the most remarkable ioftance I met with of animals being able to live long without food, of which there have been many examples during these present earthquakes. At Soriano two fattened hogs, that had been buried under a heap of ruins, were taken out alive the forty-fecond day ; they were lean and weak, but foon recovered. One of his Sicilian majefly's eng! neers, who was prctent at the takisg them out, gave me this information.

It was evident to me, in this day's journey, that all habita. tions situated on high grounds, the soil of which is a gritty Sand stone, tomewhat like a granite, but without the confiftence, here fuffered less than those situated in the plain, which are univer: fally levelled to the ground. The soil of the plain is a laro

clay

clay, white, red, or brown ; but the white prevails most, and is full of marine shells, particularly scollop shells. This valley of clay is intersected in many places by rivers and torrents coming

rom the mountains, which have produced wide and deep ra. vines all over the country. Soon after we had passed through the ruined town of St. Pietro, we had a distant view of Sicily, and the summit of Mount Etna, wnich smoaked considerably.

Just before we arrived at Rosarno, near a ford of the river Mamella, we palled over a swampy plain, in many parts of which I was thewn small hollows in the earth, of the shape of an inverted cone : they were covered with fand, as was the soil near them. I was sold, that, during the earthquake of the 5th of February, froin each of these spots a fountain of water, mixed with fand, had been driven up to a conáderable height. I spoke to a pealant here, who was present, and was covered with water and fand ; but he assured me that it was not hot, as had been represented. Before this appearance, he said, the ri. ver was dry ; but soon after returned, and overflowed its banks. I afterwards found, that the same phænomenon had been contant with respect to all the other rivers in the plain, during the formidable shock of the 5th of February. I think this phænomenon is easily explained, by supposing the firit impulse of the earthquake to have come from the bottom upwards, which all the inhabitants of the plain attest to be fact : the surface of the plain suddenly arising, the rivers, which are not deep, would naturally disappear ; and the plain returning with violence to its former level, the rivers must have naturally returned, and overflowed, at the same time that the sudden depression of the boggy grounds would as naturally force out the water that lay hid un. der their surface; as I observed, in the other parts where this phænomenon had been exhibited, that the ground was always low and rathy.

Between this place and Rosarno we pail:d the river Messano, or Metauro, (which is near the town above mentioned,) on a strong timber bridge, feven hundred palms long, which had been lately built by the duke of Monteloene. srom the cracks made on the banks, and in the bed of the river, by the earthquake, it was quite separated in one part ; and the level on which the piers are placed having been variously altered, the bridge has taken an undulated form, and the rail on each side is curiously scolloped ; but the parts that were separated baving been joined again, it is now pafiable. The duke's bridgeman told me also, that, at the moment of the earthquake, this great river was perfectly dry for some feconds, and then returned with Vol. 11. 39.

violence,

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violence, and overflowed ; and that the bridge undulated in 2 moft extraordinary manner.

When I mention the earthquake in the plain, it muf be always understood the first shock of the 5th of February, which was by far the moft terrible, and was the one that did the whole mischief in the plain, without having given any previous notice. The town of Rosarno, with the duke of Monteloene's palace there, was entirely ruined; but the walls remained about fix feet bigh, and are now fitting up as barracks. The mortality here did not much exceed two hundred out of near three thousand,

It had been remarked at Rofarno, and the same remark bes been constantly repeated to me in every ruined town that I har visited, that the male dead were generally found under the ruins in the attitude of struggling against the danger; but that the female attitude was usua ly with hands clasped over their heads, as giving themselves up to despair ; unless they had children near them, in which case they always were found elasping thei children in their arms, or in some attitude which indicated the anxicus care to protect them ; a strong inftance of the materna tenderness of the sex! The only building that remained us hurt at Rosarno was a strong-built town gaol, in which were three ne torious villains, who would probably have lost their lives, had they been at liberty.--After having dined in a bar. rack, the owner of which had lost five of his family by the earthquake, I proceeded to Laureana, oftea crossing the wide extended bed of the river Metauro.

[To be continued.]

A CHARACTER. 7 R. William Bewley, of Maslingbam, in Norfolk, who IV died at the house of his friend, Dr. Burney, in St. Mar. tin's street, where he was upon a visit, will be much lamented by all men of science ; as his great abilities, particularly in elec Tricity, chemistry, and anaiomy, had penetrated through the ab{curity of his above, and the natural modesty and diffidence of his difpofition. 'The depth, indeed, and extent of his knowledge, in every useful branch of science and literature, could only be equalled by the goodness of his heart, fimplicity of his character, and innocence of his life, feasoned with a natural an. fought wit and humour, and a cast the most original, lively, and inoffensive.

Hobbs,

Hobbs, in the last century, whose chief writings were levelled against the religion of his country, was called, from the place of bis residence, ibe Philosopher of Malmesbury; but with how much more truth and propriety has Mr. Bewley (whose life was spent in the laborious search of the most hidden and useful discoveries in art and nature, in exposing fophiftry, and displaying talents,) been distinguished in Norfolk by the title of the Philosopher of Masingham. .

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OBSERVATIONS on the COMMERCE of the AMERICAN

STATES. By John Lord SHEFFIELD, 8vo. T HE following extract from this judicious pamphlet will 1 probably be acceptable to our readers :

" BEFORE the war, valt quantities of nails were made of foreign iron, and exported from Glasgow to the southern provinces of America ; and although they cost 15 per cent, more than nails from British irori, sent from Bristol, &c. yet they were always preferred in America, from their toughness and superior quality ; and therefore, if the raw material is not exempted from duty, the many articles made of foreign iron must be lost to this country, as the British iron cannot be substituted, particularly in making the different sorts of steel, which was fora merly an immense article of export to America. It was manu. factured in Britain from Swedish iron ; and although it continued in bars as formerly, yet no drawback could be allowed.,

The cost of a ton of iron is from rol. to rol. ros. Daty, freight, charges, and manufacturing gain to the country, from ul. to 451.

The total value of a ton of foreign iron, when manufactured in Great Britain, is, according to the kind of manufacture, from 2il. to 561. viz, a ton of iron, when manufactured into

Rods, is worth .. 21 | Hoes, axes, &c. • • 42
Hoops, - - - 22 | Anvils - - - - 42
Bolts, - - - - . 24 | Tin plates, - - - 56
Anchors, . , 301 Steel from 241. to - - 56

Nails, - - - - 35 | · From 15 to 20,000 tons are annually manufactured for ex. portation ; the average of which, estimated at 281. per ton, the medium of ul. and 4;1. (the lowest and highest encrease per ton) produces annually a profit to this country of 484,500l.

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Sail-cloth

Sail-cloth of every kind is imported by the American Nates. Russia had the advantage in Rufia-duck and Raven-duck; but, when charged with the duty on importation here, they were as dear as British fail-cloth. Lately, the exportation from hence of Ruffia fail-cloth from America has almoft ceased. Ruta duck in England is about 6s. per piece of 36 yards) deater than in Holland, arising from duties and other expences, which, as far as will not interfere with our linen manufactures, fould be lowered. . .

At present Russia-duck is so scarce in England, that gl. is given for a piece that formerly fold from 358. to 40s. This is occasioned a great demand for British fáil-cloth, which has a bounty of 2d. per yard on exportation. The duty on Rufha. duck, when shipped, is about 2s, per piece of 36 yards. It is considerably wider than English. ·The number of pieces of fail-cloth exported from Peters burgh, for five years, are as follows :

In the year 1774, 1775, 1776, 1777, 1778. Pieces in English Tips, - 11580 6752 2659 150$ 401. Ditto in foreign ships, : 25187 28397 38660 44156 3766; Total number of pieces; 36767 35154 41310 45661 38064

The law that obliged American fhips to have the firft fetch fails of British canvass being at an end, there will be competition for this article. Of late years, considerable improvements have been made in the various species of fail-cloth in Scotland, and the price is considerably reduced, in consequence of the fa cility with which hemp can be brought from the Baltic, and ta low price of labour in the north of Scotland. It will be the interest of the Americans to take British fail-cloth while the present bounty is continued. It is said, the British fail-cloth is more apt to mildew ; but that may be prevented, is a great measure, by pickling when new. It is also said, that the Ruffle fail-cloth is more pliable. France makes sail-cloth, but it is much dearer, and inferior. Some has been made at Philadel phia, but the quantity must be trifling for some time.

Nearly all the articles of importation from Europe into the American ftates, are comprehended under the heads of woollens, cutlery, iron and steel manufactures of every kind, portelain and earthen ware, glass, stocking's, shoes, butrons, har, cotton, cr Manchefer manufactures of all kinds, haberdafkery and millinery, tin in plates, lead, in pigs and in theets, copper in thects, and wrought into kitchen and other utenûls ; painters' colours, cordage, and ship chandlery ; jewellery, plate, and of

namental

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