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which Pusey was reviving, or the type of Christian life he was helping to develop.' 32 The following quotation from a letter of Mr. Carter's will show how men who did ostensibly belong to the High Church party, nay more, who were extreme men of that party, regarded Dr. Pusey : 'In fact, Dr. Pusey seems to leave out wholly the Protestant element from English Catholicism; and presents High Church truths under a colour foreign to us; unreal, if not untrue; and unhealthy, if not actually perverting,' and again, 'He quotes the extremest language of the Fathers without any qualification or guarding whatever.' It is possible that Dr. Pusey did not deserve these severe strictures passed on him by Mr. Carter, and that Dr. Pusey had erred, not from intention, but because, as Archdeacon Robert Wilberforce said, “As to Pusey, I never thought him other than a confused man.'

To sum up the matter : In November 1850 Bishop Wilberforce asked Dr. Pusey for a public refutation of a public letter and private assurances as to certain practices. In April 1851 the Bishop received Mr. Carter's specific charges, and consequently maintained the position he had adopted in November, although by this time Dr. Pusey had given the public refutation to the public letter. In June 1851, when Mr. Carter refused to allow his name to appear, the Bishop was compelled to drop these specific charges against Dr. Pusey. But by June 1851 Dr. Pusey had so spread abroad that he was under inhibition not to preach, never stating this to be the result of a private understanding suggested by himself, that the Bishop's expressed wish had, owing to Dr. Pusey's indiscretion, amounted to what Dr. Pusey calls an inhibition under a gentler name.' 33 In July 1851 the Bishop writes to Dr. Pusey : ‘It is my wish that you should not officiate, but I leave you to act as you think right with this knowledge. I purpose to express in my next Charge my opinion, and I think that until after the Visitation matters should remain in statu quo.' 34 Three weeks after this letter, it appears that Dr. Pusey met the Bishop by appointment, and at the interview agreed to the proposal that matters should remain as they were until after the delivery of the Bishop's Charge in the autumn.'35 In October 1851 the Bishop delivered his Charge, which, though it did not refer to Dr. Pusey by name, was yet so pointedly directed that no one could doubt wh was meant. That Dr. Pusey felt that this was so is evidenced by the fact that he contemplated an answer, but abandoned the idea in April 1852. He, however, sent a sketch of his explanation to the Bishop, who considered it so far satisfactory that he withdrew his request that Dr. Pusey should not preach in his diocese 36

It will have been noticed that Dr. Pusey felt aggrieved that

32 Life of Cr. Pusey, iii. 39.

33 Ibid. p. 320. 34 Life of Bishop Wilberforce, ii. 111.

35 Ibid. p. 325. 36 Dr. Pusey replied to this letter, saying that he intended to delay 'availing myself of your Lordship's permission until after the long vacation.' Vor, XXXVIII—No. 221

F

Bishop Wilberforce did not treat the leaders of what is now known as the Broad Church School in the same way as he was treated. In the letter in which this complaint is made, which is published with the answer in Bishop Wilberforce's biography, and partly published in Dr. Pusey's Life,37 the name of the person complained of is left in blank. This was in the first case by Dr. Pusey's request, but he afterwards desired that if I did insert the name I should also insert this statement written by himself, which will be read with interest : 'I mentioned Dr. Jeune together with minds of a very different character on the ground mentioned in the letter, that their teaching (as shown by what had occurred in Germany) tended much more directly to Rationalism than mine to Rome. The clergy whom I instanced developed in different ways. The change in Dr. Jeune began through a sermon of J. H. Newman's, whom he did not previously know by sight. At first, he thought only of his thin voice; after a few sentences, he said to himself, This is worth attending to. The result he described to me. “Paley had convinced my understanding, Newman sent me home to pray.” This was the first parting from mere intellectualism. Many years subsequently he said to me, in regard to the Evidence writers of the eighteenth century, “You are right. If those Evidence writers had been right, the Creed should have run, “I believe that it is probable that there is one God the Father Almighty, and that He is the maker of heaven and earth, &c.'" Still more he regretted the tone adopted towards Dr. Newman, in which I fear he had himself shared, which ended in his being driven out of the Church of England. “The intellect of Oxford was driven out of it,” he said many years afterwards to myself. I say thus much lest the summary mention of Dr. Jeune, together with writers who turned out so differently, might be unjust to him, as it would be inconsistent with my relations to him during the later years of the period in which we were together members of the Hebdomadal Council.'

When Dr. Liddon, whose name appears outside this third volume as the author, began to write Dr. Pusey's Life, he said, 'Whatever I do I shall not attempt to make Pusey a faultless hero,' and although he might have written as a rough draft the whole of this episode in the order in which it is now given to the world, I feel sure from my knowledge of his method of working that, had he lived, this story would have been differently told. Those who knew Dr. Liddon well knew that he frequently wrote down that which was uppermost in bis mind; that he would, on re-reading it, alter what he had written and sometimes entirely re-write it, just as a painter obliterates a face or a hand that he has put on the canvas, and repaints the whole. But, apart from this, there are other reasons which make me certain that Dr. Liddon would never have published the accusations against Bishop Wilberforce which are scattered broadcast throughout Chapter XII. of Dr. Pusey's Life. In the first place, the deep love he bore the Bishop would have made him reconsider many phrases; and in the second, the knowledge he possessed of the letters and documents which had not been used in the Bishop's biography would have induced him to write finally in a different fashion. For Dr. Liddon knew that many things had been lightly passed over.

37 Life of Dr. Puscy, iii. 318, 319.

R. G. WILBERFORCE.

MY NATIVE SALMON RIVER

None of the greater rivers of Scotland makes so much haste to reach the ocean as does the turbulent and impatient Spey. From its parent locklet in the bosom of the Grampians, it speeds through Badenoch, the country of Cluny MacPherson, the chief of Clan Chattan, a region to this day redolent of memories of the '45. It abates its hurry as its current skirts the grave of the beautiful Jean Maxwell, Duchess of Gordon, who raised the 92nd Highlanders by giving a kiss with the king's shilling to every recruit, and who now since many long years

Sleeps beneath Kinrara's willow. But after this salaam of courtesy the river roars and bickers down the long stretch of shaggy glen which intervenes between the upper and lower Rocks of Craigellachie, whence the clan Grant, whose habitation is this ruggedly beautiful strath, takes its slogan of Stand fast, Craigellachie,' till it finally sends its headlong torrent shooting miles out through the salt water of the Moray Firth. In its course of over a hundred miles its fierce current has seldom tarried ; yet now and again it spreads panting into a long smooth stretch of still water, when wearied momentarily with buffeting the boulders in its broken and contorted bed; or when a great rock, jutting out into its course, causes a deep black sullen pool whose sluggish eddy is crested with masses of yellow foam. Merely as a wayfaring pedestrian I have followed Spey from its source to its mouth; but my intimacy with it in the character of a fisherman extends over the five-and-twenty miles of its lower course, from the confluence of the pellucid Avon at Ballindalloch to the bridge of Fochabers, the native village of the Captain Wilson who died so gallantly in the recent fighting in Matabeleland. My first Spey trout I took out of water at the foot of the cherry orchard below the sweet-lying cottage of Delfur. My first grilse I hooked and played with trout tackle in • Dalmunach'on the Laggan water, a pool that is the rival of Dellagyl’ and the ‘Holly Bush' for the proud title of the best pool of lower Spey. My first salmon I brought to the gaff with a beating heart in that fine swift stretch of water, known as . The Dip,' which connects the pools of the Heathery Isle' and the Red Craig,' and which is now leased by that good fisherman, Mr. Justice North. I think the Dundurcas water then belonged to the late Mr. Little Gilmour, the well-known welter-weight who went so well to hounds season after season from Melton Mowbray, and who was as keen in the water on Spey as he was over the Leicestershire pastures. A servant of Mr. Little Gilmour was drowned in the Two Stones' pool, the next below the ‘Holly Bush;' and the next pool below the 'Two Stones' is called the · Beaufort' to this day-named after the present Duke, who took many a big fish out of it in the days when he used to come to Speyside with his friend, Mr. Little Gilmour.

In those long gone-by days brave old Lord Saltoun, the hero of Hougomont, resided during the fishing season in the mansion-house of Auchinroath, on the high ground at the mouth of the Glen of Rothes. One morning, some five-and-forty years ago, my father drove to breakfast with the old lord, and took me with him. Not caring to send the horse to the stable, he left me outside in the dogcart when he entered the house. As I waited rather sulkily-for I was very hungry—there came out on to the doorstep a very queer-looking old person, short of figure, round as a ball, his head sunk between very high and rounded shoulders, and with short stumpy legs. He was curiously attired in a whole-coloured suit of grey; a droll-shaped jacket, the great collar of which reached far up the back of his head, surmounted a pair of voluminous breeches which suddenly tightened at the knee. I imagined him to be the butler in morning dishabille; and when he accosted me good-naturedly, asking to whom the dogcart and myself belonged, I answered him somewhat shortly, and then ingenuously suggested that he would be doing me a kindly act if he would go and fetch me out a hunk of bread and meat, for I was enduring tortures of hunger.

Then he swore, and that with vigour and fluency, that it was a shame that I should have been left outside; called a groom, and bade me alight and come indoors with him. I demurred—I had got the paternal injunction to remain with the horse and cart. “I am master here!' exclaimed the old person impetuously; and with further strong language he expressed his intention of rating my father soundly for not having brought me inside along with himself. Then a question occurred to me, and I ventured to ask, “Are you Lord Saltoun ?' 'Of course I am,' replied the old gentleman; 'who the devil else should I be?' Well, I did not like to avow what I felt, but in truth I was hugely disappointed in him ; for I had just been reading Siborne's Waterloo, and to think that this dumpy old fellow in the duffel jacket that came up over his ears was the valiant hero who had held Hougomont through cannon fire and musketry fire and hand-to-hand bayonet fighting on the day of Waterloo, while the post he was defending was ablaze, and who had actually killed Frenchmen with his own good sword, was a severe disenchantment. When I had breakfasted, he asked leave of my father to let me go

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