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far from the totality) being school- tiplication principally. A fleet of boys, with a sharp-set appetite for a seventy-three fishing-boats start from display of ciphering skill. The hero Dunkirk on the first of April to of the night was standing in the catch cod in the North Sea. They midst, in the attitude common to return on the thirty-first of July blind people and extremely absent that is, they are absent four months." and thoughtful persons.
“I understand; they are out at sea quested silence to be kept while he a hundred and twenty-two days.' was making his calculations, which “ Each boat carries nineteen men. he did walking backwards and for- How many men are there in the wards, with a sort of short, quarter- whole fleet?”
“One thousand three hundred and “What shall we begin with ?” eighty-seven. was a natural inquiry.
“And if each man eats four pounds Suppose we take addition first, of bread per day, how much bread and mount gradually through the per day is eaten on board all the rules. Will any one name any sums boats?" they think fit to be added together?” “Of course, five thousand five
Hereupon various individuals dic- hundred and forty-eight pounds. tated items of hundreds of thousands, " With how much bread, then, a million and odd, a few hundreds, must the fleet be provisioned to supand even units, to render the task ply it during the whole of its four the more puzzling, till some ten or months' voyage ?” twelve lines of figures were taken The calculator, who had stood still down by the gentleman who acted as during the previous questions, resecretary. Before he could finish sumed his quarter-deck pacing to the addition on the paper, the phe- and fro, and put on, as country-peonomenon gave the total accurately. ple say, his considering.cap. In a I began to tremble for my questions, few instants he stopped short, and fearing that they would not prove said, “ They must take out with them posers.
six hundred and seventy-six thouNext was proposed a sum of sub- sand, eight hundred and fifty-six traction, in which trillions were to pounds of bread.”' be deducted from trillions. The Perfectly correct ! Quite right!" remainder was given as easily as an The boys were in ecstasies, which answer to What o'clock is it? Cer- found vent in another round of aptainly my questions would turn out plause. no posers at all.
“But these hard-working fisherCan
you extract cube roots men- men,'' I continued, keep up their tally?" I asked.
strength with something else besides “Yes, give me one."
bread. Each man drinks a glass of “What is the cube root of nine- gin every morning; how many
drams teen thousand six hundred and are drunk during the course of the eighty-three?"
four months ?" Oh, that is too easy. It is twen- Another short promenade, and ty-seven.'
then the answer: “One hundred and Later in the evening he extracted sixty-nine thousand, two hundred a cube root of four figures. The and fourteen.” schoolboys were delighted and as- “ But that is not all; the gin is tonished. If they had not applauded kept in bottles, and each bottle
holds heartily, as they did, they would not thirty-seven petits verres or drams. have been schoolboys.
How many bottles must the fleet “I have a little calculation to pro- carry out?'' pose," I said, “which involves mul- " It must take outlet us see-it
must take out four thousand five nineteen thousand, eight hundred hundred and seventy-three bottles, and forty." and a fraction consisting of thirteen Right. But I observe, on watchdrams over."
ing them, that each large animalcule And so'ended my question num- eats, per day, one middle-sized, and ber one; no poser, nor ass's bridge three little animalcules. How many at all. The interest of the audience animalcules shall I have left at the was highly excited. To give a short end of a couple of days?" repose to the calculator's brain, a There will be, altogether, sixyoung lady treated us to a charming teen millions, one hundred and divertisement on the piano.
eleven thousand, four hundred and you tired ?'
eight survivors.' “Oh, no; not at all.”
After a few other arithmetical lu“Shall we try something with a cubrations, the calculating performer greater number of figures ?''
made a proposition which not a little “If you please.'
startled his auditors. 'Listen, then. I have a bottle of “ Dictate to me,” he said, “ from ditch-water, the contents of which, a written paper, a hundred and fifty as near as I can estimate, amount to figures, any you please, in any order, eighty-seven thousand, five hundred and I will repeat them to you by and sixty-two drops. In every drop, heart. Read them aloud to me, by on examining it with the micro- sixes.' scope, I find three species of ani- A gentleman present took pencil malcules—large, middle-sized, and and paper, and wrote down a string small, namely, seventeen large ones, of figures as they came into his head, thirty-nine middle-sized, and two by chance. “Seven, nought, nine, hundred and sixty-four small. First, five, three, one." tell me how many large animalcules “Yes," said the phenomenon, I have in my bottle.”
After a few paces, the correct an- “Nought, five, seven, six, two, swer is given : “You have one mil- three. lion, four hundred and eighty-eight · Yes; go on.” thousand, five hundred and fifty-four." And so on till there were a hundred
“And how many middle-sized and fifty figures on the list. ones?"
“Will you like to make it two " Three millions, four hundred hundred ?" asked the imperturbable and fourteen thousand, nine hundred calculator. and eighteen.”
“No, no; that's quite enough,' Exactly. And how many small shouted the humane audience. ones!”
Now, repeat them once again, “Twenty-three millions, one hun- quick." dred and twenty-six thousand" The figures were repeated accord
“No; you have made an error ingly. there."
“I am ready; they are nailed fast “Stop; let me see. It is twenty- in my head. If I make a mistake, three millions, one hundred and six- say “False ;' but don't correct me. teen thousand, three hundred and Which way will you like to have sixty-eight.'
them said ?—beginning from the be“Perfectly correct. And now, if ginning, or beginning from the end? you please, how many animalcules, The great number of zeros in the list large, small, and middle-sized, have makes it more difficult; but never I altogether in my bottle of ditch- mind." water?"
“Begin from the beginning," was “You have twenty-eight millions, the considerate word of command.
The wonder resumed his pacing study gradually weakened his eyestep, and with half-shut eyes and sight till he became quite blind, and forefinger vibrating by the side of his continued so for two years and a half, forehead, close to the phrenological until he was twenty-five years of age. organ of number (a favorite action The blindness came on “comically,' with him), commenced his repeti- he said, without headache or pain in tion : “Seven, nought, nine, five, the eyes; in short, he had never three, one; nought, five, seven, six, been ill in his life. As long as the two, three,” etc. ; until the hundred deprivation of sight continued, his and fifty figures were run off the roll- great amusement was to calculate procall, in much the same tone as a lit- blems in his head. Eyesight returned tle child recites “How doth the gradually, as it had departed, but little busy bee improve each shining only partially. Medical men promised hour.” There were only one or two him its complete restoration if he errors, owing, he said, to the treach- would renounce mental mathematics; erous zeros; and on the admonition but the propensity was too strong. “False,” they were corrected with He performed in his head all sorts of out aid. And then he repeated the calculations in spherical trigonomelist backwards, with the same mo- try, curves, and other branches of notonous ease. And then he offered high science. But, for himself, the to name any one given figure on the most difficult operation was simple list.
multiplication on a somewhat ex"What is the forty-fifth figure, tended scale, say the multiplication counting from the end'?”'
of twenty figures by a multiplier “A seven, between a one on the consisting of fifteen or twenty. A right hand, and a nine on the left." sum like this took him ten or twelve
“What is the twenty-first figure minutes to work mentally—the only from the beginning?”
way possible ; for he could not see "A five, with a zero to the right, clearly enough even to sign his own and a three to the left."
name without having his hand guided. And then he sat down, amidst Contrary to most of the calculacrowning applause, wiping the per- tors hitherto exhibited to the public, spiration from his brow, as well he and who, like Mondeux, were mathemight. And then he rose and gave maticians by instinct, and could not a detailed summing up with the explain how they arrived at their refigures) of all the problems he had sults, M. Winkler was perfectly acgone through during the evening. quainted with the theory of numbers,
Jean Jacques Winkler, the person and arrived at the solution of the who executes these prodigies of strongest problems by means of a mental gymnastics, according to his methodical mental operation. He own account, was born at Zurich, in had formulæ of his own for the ex1831. He was one of a family of traction of cube roots, for instance, eight-four sons and four daughters. and short-cuts for trigonometry. A His father was a retired bill-broker, power consisting of thirty figures living on his income a sort of animal took him four or five minutes to exlife (the son's expression), and wish- tract its cube root mentally—an asing to keep the wanderer at home. tounding feat; for a good arithmeJean Jacques, from his earliest child.' tician will require three-quarters of hood, studied all sorts of subjects by an hour to do the same thing with night and by day, possessing a pe- pencil and slate. He had projected culiar aptitude for calculation, com- a mathematical book to facilitate and bined with a prodigious memory. shorten intricate operations of the He studied in various places, and kind, but was prevented by the diffiunder various instructors, even under culty of producing in writing his Arago, amongst others. This hard imagined symbols.
ANOTHER of the persecutors of the example set him by his wicked father. How Church has been called to render his account far he will be permitted by God, whose before the tribunal of God. On the 9th power is almighty, and how far he will be of January Victor Emanuel died. He is a held back by him, no one can foresee. One striking instance how men failing to corre- thing is certain, the Church is imperishable, spond with divine grace, and giving loose and those who persecute her are always in reins to their passions, break through the the end made to pay the penalty of their restraints of conscience and known duty, wickedness, while the Church survives, and fall constantly deeper and deeper into the comes forth from persecution with renewed abysses of sin, until at last they yield un- power and beauty. hesitatingly to every temptation that presents itself, and commit sacrilege and other enormities without hesitation or seeming com- DR. THOMAS W. M. MARSHALL, one of punctions of conscience.
the ablest Catholic journalists in the English Victor Emanuel's crimes are not charge. language, died on the 14th of December able to want of knowledge or misdirected last, at his residence, at Surhiton, Surrey education. He was taught the principles of County, England, after a long and painful our holy religion in youth; he was acquainted illness, borne with great patience and perwith its truths. But he possessed violent fect resignation to the will of God. passions, and allowed them to acquire the Dr. Marshall was almost as well known mastery over him until he became their in the United States as in England, by his slave. He indulged in personality until it copious and at the same time trenchant became a second nature to him, and he journalistic writings, and also through the gratified its base desires to such extent that valuable books of which he was author. he became in that respect a beast rather than He visited this country twice in the course
His ambition was allowed in like of his life, and wherever he went he won manner to rule him, so that he became the the respect and esteem of those he met, by willing slave of men more astute than him his geniality, humility, and unaffected piety. self, of Cavour as long as he lived, and after During his visit in 1871, he lectured to large his death, of others who adopted the worst audiences in Philadelphia and other cities, of his ideas, and who developed them into on subjects connected with Catholicity, with consequences from which, we believe, universal acceptance. Cavour would have shrunk.
The impression made during his visit to How Victor Emanuel despoiled and Philadelphia was such that he was offered a persecuted the Church, plundered and sup- professorship in the Diocesan Theological pressed its religious, desecrated its sacred Seminary, and was also solicited to become shrines and sanctuaries, stabled his horses in editor of the Catholic Standard, and the convents, and perpetrated other sacrileges, is clergy and laity of the city united in making too well known to need repetition.
up a considerable sum of money, which was
. Had all that he has done been foretold presented to him as a mark of their high him in his youth, he would have probably esteem. answered in the words of Hazael, who Dr. Marshall was a convert from Anglibecame king of Syria, to the prophet Eliseus, canism. He was born in 1815, graduated at Is thy servant a dog that he should do this Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1838, regreat sin ? And yet as Hazael did all the ceived Anglican " ordination” from the enormities predicted of him, so Victor Bishop of Salisbury,” and held the living Emanuel went on, step by step, until he of Swallowcliff as long as he remained an came to be as cruel a persecutor of the Anglican minister. Church as was Hazael of the children of About the year 1843 he published a Israel.
voluminous work, entitled Notes on the He has been buried with
Catholic Episcopate, in which he clearly mony, has been freely forgiven for the showed that the Episcopal form of Church offences he did to him personally by the government was the only one in the early Holy Father, but what judgment God, who ages of the Church. The investigations and alone knows the disposition in which the studies necessary for preparing this work usurper of Italy died, will pronounce upon were instrumental in bringing Dr. Marshall him, because of his sins, it is not for us to in the Catholic Church. determine.
On his conversion to Catholicity Dr. His son, Humbert, has ascended the Marshall gave up the living of Swallowcliff, usurped throne, and according to his pub. and was compelled to rely entirely on his lished address, proposes to follow the pen for support. He was poor, and the
sacrifice he made in relinquishing his posi- monials presented to the Sovereign Pontiff tion as an Anglican minister was very great, during his late Episcopal Jubilee, there is but it was made unhesitatingly and cheer- one from the Roman Academy of Fine Arts, fully.
that is specially interesting, as recounting the After Dr. Marshall became a Catholic he history of his many acts of munificence and wrote and published a number of valuable generosity for the promotion of the fine arts, works. Chief among these is his Christian though the number of these acts is so great Missions. This is a work of wonderful that mention of many of them, as is stated research. It is said that in preparing it the in the preface of the work, is necessarily learned writer examined and consulted omitted. nearly five thousand different volumes. It The chief works noted in the volume reshows, with a clearness that is transparent ferred to, are: and an array of evidence that is invincible, The great improvements in the Insane the beneficial results of Catholic missions, Asylum under the architect Azurri; the enand the utter failure of Protestant missions largement and improvement of the hospital to elevate and Christianize the inhabitants of of Santa Spirito in Sossia, and the addition heathen countries. In addition to this work, of a very beautiful and highly decorated which lived and long subserved an import- façade; restoration and embellishment of ant purpose, Dr. Marshall subsequently wrote the Church of St. Maria in Via Lota, atMy Clerical Friends, Church Defence, Prot- tached to the Borghese Palace; the estabestant Journalism, and several other books. lishment of schools for poor children in the They are specimens as regards style of pure Borgo, in the Pazza Pia, in the Via degli vigorous English, are replete with thought, Ombrellari, in the new quarter Mastai ; the and enlivened with flashes of the keenest wit. .construction of habitations for the poor in At the same time Dr. Marshall was engaged the Trastevere region; the splendid new in furnishing leading editorials to the Lon- fountain, surrounded by a garden, in the don Tablet and the Catholic Times and Piazza Mastai ; the erection of a house for Opinions. His journalistic articles as well the use of the Apostolic College of the as his books were always thoughtful, di- Missions, of many houses for the poor, and rect, lucid, and vigorous. He wielded a of an additional school for poor children, trenchant pen, pointed often with the keenest all in this same quarter. Then there is the irony, yet his wit and sarcasm were never ill- restoration to its primitive splendor of the natured or malicious. No one had a quicker Basilica and Canonica of St. Agnes on the eye to detect the weak points in his adver- Nomentan Way; the enriching of the Unisaries' armor, or a surer and more vigorous versity of the Sapienza with museums of hand to drive the dart straight through them zoology and mineralogy, and the erection of with unerring aim.
edifices to contain these museums; the resAs a controversialist Dr. Marshall was toration of the Palace of Dotaria; the unequalled among English writers of his repairing and adornment of the ancient time. He was thoroughly in earnest, yet historical Church of St. Lorenzo in Lucina; never unfair.
His memory was of the most and the restoration and adornment of the tenacious grasp, and his knowledge both of splendid new church in the town of Porto men and books accurate and extensive. d'Anzio, dedicated to SS. Pius V and An
As a Catholic, Dr. Marshall was sincere, thony. Then there is the spacious library devout, and zealous, and in matters of faith with which His Holiness generously enas single-minded as a child. In honor of dowed the Seminario Pio; the fountain his services to religion, the Sovereign Pon- built on Monte Maria, for the benefit of the tiff, Pius IX, bestowed on him the Cross of people in that vicinity; the erection of great St. Gregory, and Georgetown College, D.C., buildings for the manufacture of tobacco; the title of LL.D. His funeral took place the restoration of the Porta Pia, and the at Mortlake, on Thursday, December 20th, Porta San Pancrosio; the chapel erected in when a Requiem Mass was said by Rev. E. the garden of the night schools outside the F. Murnane, and the prayers at the grave by Porta Cozaglieri; the systematizing of the the Very Rev. Canon Wenham.
Capitoline Observatory; of the new heating May he rest in peace.
apparatus in the Botanic Garden; the anatomical theatre; the archæological museum
in the Roman University ; the new wing of In accordance with the spirit of the the monastery of the Buon Pastore ; the new Catholic religion, the Popes have always establishment for the beneficed servants of been generous patrons of the fine arts. No the Vatican; the great washing establishment Pontiff has shown more interest in them, or near the Convent of St. Clements; the great done more to encourage them, as well as cemetery (Campo Santo) extended and emuseful industrial pursuits, and also to support bellished; the plans for the new front and charitable institutions, than His Holiness, portico before the Ostian Basilica ; the prepPius IX. Among the many splendid testi- aration of the cloister and the court of the