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of erecting more substantial protec- tection against the almost constant tion, when they decided to give over warfare of those times. When we their roamings and settle into towns contrast our present puny edifices of and cities, while each one built a brick with those composed of huge house, the art of architecture was blocks of stone, which frown down little known or thought of. Then upon us from so many crags and we have the massive ruins of Thebes mountain-sides in Europe, we cannot and Babylon, those mysterious relics but feel that modern times have of dim antiquity scattered through much to learn of the dark ages in Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy, to this art. show us what they could do when Sculpture and painting are the once awakened to the knowledge of twin arts which suffered most from the capability of stone and mortar to the inroads of the barbarians, and contribute to the dignity and well- were the slowest to recover their being of men, or the honor of their pristine glory; in fact, it may be deities. And how vocal with old doubted whether the former has ever heroic legends seems every rugged recovered fully, or whether modern stone ! Monuments we would fain artists can really rival Phidias and believe of the days of Achilles and the early Greeks. But when these the Atreidæ. The historians and arts did begin to revive, their recovphilosophers of the days of Pericles ery was rapid, and modern "light" knew no more of the authors of these must turn again to the “dark” ages gigantic fragments than ourselves. for instruction. No matter how clevEach rugged gateway may have seen erly the fingers may mould the clay the marshalling of heroes arrayed to or guide the brush, no man or woman man the thousand ships of Argos, among us feels himself or herself an and wait upon their chariot-wheels artist until a study of the “antique,” to whom Zeus had consigned her either from the originals as preserved twofold throne and sceptre. We in the art galleries of Rome, Paris, have no space in this article to trace Munich, or Dresden, or the copies the gradual change which came over
which have been made for our own, this art, as it was studied more and has revealed the secret of their greatmore by the light of the growing ness. And but for the churchmen, intelligences; our part is to point who were munificent patrons and out the patient devotion with which protectors of art and artists in these the beautifying of God's temples was dark ages, where would these treascarried on during these ages of faith, ures of Rome and Greece have been when, because they were the houses after the barbarian whirlwind and its of God, hands and hearts united to resultant confusion, the long years of make them the wonders of the age wars and rapine, the destruction by and of all ages, not by outside glory, ignorant and infuriated mobs? And not for display of arch and piers and in studying the history of those days flying buttresses, but by the ornamen- we see again how thoroughly they tation of every part, however hidden, were “ages of faith.” From the carving a wreath as delicately and earliest resurrection of the painter's truly far up under the eaves, where art we find them tracing upon the mortal eyes would never see it, as canvas their dream of that most over the broad entrance doors. Of divine group, the Holy Farnily, or course as the study of the beauties of another devotes years of his life to architecture became more general, the perfection of a Virgin and Child, more attention was paid to the beau- or again, the Assumption of the tifying of private residences. But Blessed Mother, or the triumph of the first idea of all such buildings God's saints. The greatest geniuses was strength alone, providing pro- considered all but sacred subjects infinitely beneath their art, and Mi- graded it to their own base uses, chael Angelo's and Raphael's pen- and under the name of astrology cils were paralyzed by any other, made it subservient to their own evil and even when they were induced or purposes, and an instrument by obliged by kingly request or mandate which to mislead and deceive the to divert their chisels and brushes to ignorant. The regular science was another channel, to the decorations not revived, after the destruction of of palaces and public places, how the Roman empire and the settleplainly have they not left the traces ment of Europe into something reof their mental bias in the sacred sembling its present geographical subjects which they chose almost divisions, until in the thirteenth without exception.
century, under the patronage of the A discovery which was to change Church in Spain. But it was not the whole civilization of the world, until Johann Müller, surnamed Requite as much as that of printing, by giomontanus (a Latinization of the its influence over manners and cus- place of his birth, Konigsberg), detoms of peoples, had its birth in the voted himself to this study, that any cell of one of those “lazy” monks great progress was made. In 1474 of which we have spoken. Konstan- he issued the first astronomical altin Aucklitzen, a native of Fresburg, manac published in Europe. Rechaving entered the Franciscan order, ognizing at once his genius and the assumed the name of Berthold; be- service he could confer upon learning fond of the study of chemistry, ing and the world, Sixtus IV, then and constantly practicing its combi- Pope, appointed him Archbishop of nations and experimenting thereon, Ratisbon, and eagerly secured his he obtained the sobriquet of Schwartz. services in the reformation of the It is to him that we owe the discov- Roman calendar, but he died before ery of gunpowder in its application the work was commenced. To him to modern warfare and the chase. we owe the introduction of decimal This, too, may be called a lost art, fractions, and the science of trigofor there is incontestable proof of its nometry was developed by him having been used by the ancients; nearly to its present state. Coperthat is, the compound of nitre, sul- nicus, who was the first to reassert phur and charcoal was known to the Pythagorean theory that the sun the Hindoos at a very early period, was stationary in the heavens and some say as far back as the time of that the earth revolved around it, Moses. Alexander of Macedon used was a priest of the Church, and alit with terrible effect under the name lowed to teach his doctrine undisof “Greek fire." But it was looked turbed save by the commendation upon with terror and very little and patronage of the Pope and carunderstood, notwithstanding that dinals during his residence at Rome, Roger Bacon described it in his where he gained a brilliant reputawritings, until “Schwartz'' surprised tion. Tycho Brahe and Kepler, with himself and the world a hundred Galileo, belong to the .century just
beyond the boundary of the ages The science of astronomy had we are studying, yet it will not be been a favorite with the ancients out of place, in view of the lies so before the Christian era, and while persistently told of the latter in conmany made it a subject for earnest nection with the Church, to notice thought, as shown by the action of them en passant. We see Kepler, the Magi, who recognized a new the disciple of Tycho Brahe, a Protheavenly body in the star which led estant, flying from Protestant persethem to the crib of Bethlehem, there cution to the Jesuit university of were not wanting charlatans who de- Prague, where he was received and
honored because of his great ability over again, and the action of the and learning. In Galileo we find Roman court upheld, even by Protthe pettish child of genius turning estant writers of calm judgment and upon the hand that fostered it, and common sense, yet the “e pur si blinded by ambition, daring to im. muove" and the stamp of the foot pugn the word of God. This at- is irresistible to sensational histortempt, and this attempt alone, was ians, and its theatrical effect no the cause of all the trouble; yet schoolboy can forego. Protestant teachers systematically Thus, after a calm survey of the become possessed of bad memories times, we find that the term “ dark" when Kepler's troubles are is decidedly a misnomer. There cerned, and remember only the was light enough in the middle ages "starry Galileo and his woes." to lead the people into the brilliant Kepler was driven from Tübingen, illumination of the present day, and a Protestant university, by Protestant if any one complained of darkness bigotry, for teaching the same truths it was because his eyes were wilfully which Copernicus, the Catholic closed. And we see that the light priest, had taught before him, while which so guided the people was set Galileo was honored and fêted and upon the seven hills of Rome, cherpatronized at Rome, by Cardinal ished by her hierarchy, trimmed and Bandini, in whose garden his tele- fed by her God-guided hands. The scope was erected, for teaching that Popes devoted themselves to the presidentical theory. Cardinal Barber- ervation of the Church, and with ini, when Pope Urban VIII, proved her of all that the world still held of himself a munificent patron of the good, and whether we see a Gregory astronomer. But Galileo's disposi- or a Leo X upon the chair of Peter, tion was one to be injured rather whether the means employed seem than improved by so much laudation, the foolishness of the dove or the and he became proud and imperious wisdom of the serpent, the end is the and began to assert himself like a The arts and sciences, learnspoiled child, who can imagine no ing and intelligence were fostered limit to his privileges. In pushing and cherished, human passions were to completion his development of restrained by the strong hand of a the Copernican system, which was God-sent authority, and the mighty allowed as an hypothesis, but which ship of civilization carefully conhe presumed to declare without suf- trolled and piloted amid the storms ficient proof a fact, he encroached of centuries. And as the Church upon the domain of the Church, stood then she stands to-day, unalalways so jealously guarded, and tered and unalterable, ever ready to dared to throw doubt upon the truth lift her voice against error, ever on of the Sacred Scriptures, question- the watch to shield with her ægis ing the standing still of the sun at the sacred form of truth. the word of Joshua. Then he was As Leo the First drove back from silenced by the Inquisition, and the the gates of Rome Attila and his barmere fact of his having been cited barian hordes, not by force of arms, before that body has induced writers but by the divine power transmitted inimical to the Church to imagine to him, so with the same holy weaa long and rigorous persecution, car- pons does Pius IX from his prison ried on with all the venom of ig- hurl forth his denunciations and renorance and fear that any new proofs against the infidelity of modknowledge would destroy a power ern times, which threatens to sweep over the people, preserved only away every vestige of truth and rethrough that ignorance. The story ligion from the world. Fearlessly has been told truthfully over and as the one faced unarmed the selfstyled Scourge of God, so fearlessly world as she has done from the bedoes the other meet the more im- ginning; and men may sneer at her palpable and insidious, but far more and do battle with her, may even, dangerous foe, developed and fos- seemingly, conquer in that battle. tered by the apostasy of the Monk Their victory will be shortlived. of Wittenberg. And so to the end
“ Truth crushed to earth shall rise again; of ages will the Church through her The eternal years of God are hers;
But Error, wounded, writhes with pain, chief pastor fight the errors of the And dies amid her worshippers.”
POETRY AND PHILOSOPHY.
" Il faut choisir-il faut être poète ou philosophe !"-Consuelo.
I LOVE them both! And must I make my choice?
Can I not follow fair Philosophy,
When the heart longs to speak and thou art nigh?
O never bid me stifle the loved tone
That whispers to our nature, sadly sweet !
Or thrill with tales where love and battle meet,
And never ask me to renounce the lore
Unfolding to my gaze fair nature's page.
The poet's heart, the wisdom of the sage !
Wisdom that scorns the poet's tenderness,
That cannot love the beautiful and bright,
Hath never read the page of nature right.
And genius that would scorn the lowly way
Which leads to truth, although by millions trod,
And learn from children how to soar to God.
There's worldly wisdom, and there's poesy's art,
Both of this earth; but in their nobler sphere
Reclaim from sin, and guide in love and fear.
HOW PROFESSOR GASTER LĘCTURED A GHOST.
The little old clock in the mottled I do not wish to say that the Prowalnut wood case that stood on the fessor had taken champagne with mantelpiece of the Professor's labor- more people that night than he ought, atory, No. 18 Great Decoram Street, at Mrs. Fitz Jones's great annual had just chimed out midnight in a party (though even that would only silvery and musical way, when the tend to show the largeness of the Professor opened his front door with excellent man's benevolence), but a latch-key and burglariously entered still I must concede that somehow his own house on his early return or other he was abnormally exhilafrom an evening party.
rated, for he danced a cavalier seul as Now, the Professor was a popular he put his Gibus on the hall-table, lecturer on food, electricity, and and pirouetted as he took off his other kindred subjects, and being, gray opera wrapper and shawl handmoreover, a jovial, fat, clever little kerchief, and lighted his moderator man, was rather an acquisition at lamp at the name of the expiring little parties, for he sang a little, night-light. But as I have often obplayed a little, danced a little, flirted served that great benevolence and a little, and made a fool of himself good animal spirits go together, I a little, yet was by no means a bore, am sometimes inclined to think that but on the contrary, a decidedly the milk of human kindness is in useful old bachelor, and would waltz some constitutions flavored slightly with ugly girls, chat with talka- with alcohol, and therefore partakes tive old fogies, and take gorgeous of the nature of milk-punch. Howdowagers down to the supper-room. ever, I leave this abstruse question to And as the Professor did not care those clear-headed gentlemen the about being joked at, but on the physiologists. contrary liked it, and when joked, The Professor was as brave as most laughed, and twinkled, and beamed men, but he was that night, it must through his silvery spectacles, like a be confessed, a little nervous. His merry old glow-worm, every one
sensitive and wide forgot his learning and celebrity and awake-in the state that I should be liked the Professor heartily.
inclined to think the telegraph wires On the night in question, the are in, that is, constantly and almost Professor was in high spirits—and fretfully expecting a message to be with some reason. Firstly, he had sent through their medium. The made two jokes that had set the Professor, I think, had got a sort of supper-table in a roar, and had made vague suspicion of ghosts or thieves, the jellies shake as if they felt the material or spiritual intruders, he did cold. Secondly, he had waltzed not know which, and he did not care twice with pretty Fanny Ledger, which either; for I am sure that in and had received a smile that gave the one case he would have fallen hopes of more intimate relationship on them with the slender dress cane being established some day between then in his hand (not a formidable the houses of Ledger and Gaster. weapon, it must be allowed), and in Thirdly, a great thought had struck the other have flung open the front him as he walked briskly and chirpily door and shouted for the police. It home, for his celebrated Treatise on was, at all events, owing to this slight the Merrythought of the Dodo, nervous derangement, I suppose, that which was to be read at the Society the Professor, as he lighted his lamp, on the ensuing Wednesday.
went down the two steps that led to