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AMERICAN CATHOLIC QUARTERLY REVIEW.

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CONTENTS.

APRIL, 1878. No. 84, VOL. XIV.

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I. Leo XIII and his New-found Admirers. Rev. Joseph V.
O'Conor, . .

. . . . . . . 321
II. Easter Lilies. M. M. Meline, . . . . . . . 326
III. Sonnet of Love. M. F. Egan, .
IV. The last acts of Pius IX. Rev. H. J. Colleridge, S. J., in

“The Month," . . . . . . . . . 335 V. The Legend of Roses. Old Magazine, . . . VI. A Question of Honor. Katherine E. Conway, . . .347 VII. A Visit to Carmel and Beyrout-Notes from an Old Journal, 353 VIII. Ode to the Society of Jesus. Eleanor C. Donnelly,

363 IX. A Plea for a Bachelor's Manual, . .

365 X. Hope and Prayer. John Arthur Henry,. . XI. Letty Dormer, . . . . . . . . . 370 XII. St. Bernard, . . XIII. Editorial Notes, . XIV. New PUBLICATIONS.—The Fall of Rora-Poems,. XV. Valedictory, . .

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Two days before his death, Mo- the Oriental mind. It gave a relighammed went to the mosque for the ious sanction to unbridled sensuality. last time, and asked if he had injured It sowed the seeds of religious rancor any man. If so, let his own back and bitterness among races not culbear the stripes. “Better be in tured enough to be theological. It shame now," said he, “ than at the stood as an inseparable obstacle to day of judgment.” He then went the Christianizing of the East, or home. A Jewish maidservant pre- rather it uprooted the faith in nations, pared for him a dish which she had which had the apostles for their poisoned, with the intent of testing missionaries. his supernatural powers. He ate of Under all the political reasons for it and died.

the prosecution of the war in the To the question if he had injured East, there runs a deep current of any man the modern world is con- religious feeling. The Cross and the strained to answer in a positive Crescent are once more arrayed in affirmative. He has been the social deadly conflict. It is true that and religious death of several nations. Greek Christianity is not the purest The fierce enthusiasm which he in- or mightiest force to summon against spired in the Saracens blazed like a the Mohammedan superstition, but destroying fire for eight hundred still as representative of the eternal years, and left nought but ashes and irreconcilable enmity between behind. His religion has cursed the creeds, it serves to enlist the Turkey and the East for hundreds of sympathies of the Christian world. years, and has failed to lift them out The divided opinion in England of semi-barbarism. Whatever may upon the merits of the question is a be the theoretical excellence of the sad illustration of the decay of that precepts of the Koran, the Moslem Christian feeling which in the times influence has been singularly inopera- of Richard Cour de Lion inflamed tive of good upon the nations which the island with the faith and fervor embraced the creed. It deepened of the Crusades. Then England did the natural fatalistic tendencies of not rate all good by the standard of

VOL. XIV.-9

pounds, shillings, and pence. What- Sultan yearly sends to Mecca a ever be the motives actuating Russia, covering for it, of rich black silk, it is clear that the humiliation and magnificently.. embroidered. The dismemberment of the Turkish Em.:Arab, whose: marked characteristics pire must prove fatal to the Mussůl-::Mohammed possessed in an eminent man creed, which has so long reared degree; has: always been noted for its horrid front in the face of Chris- religious feeling: The ancient Matian and civilized Europe. The gians and. Persians were star-wordownfall of the Turkish power is the shippers, ttrm of idolatry which prelude to the disintegration of the appears to be productive of exalted Moslem system. As it is, the former religious ideas and feelings. The tenacity of belief has long since primitive Irish also were Sabeans, or given way to the laxity of morals worshippers of the sun. The naked and the prevalence of sectism. Few plains of the desert, in which sky pilgrims now wend their way to the and earth seem to meet, afforded to shrine of Mecca, the glory of which the wandering tribes the most maghas departed. The nomadic tribes nificent views of the glory and splenof Arabia, illiterate and immoral, dor of the heavenly bodies. There will lose or corrupt the traditions also lingered among them the tradiof the Prophet, and once deprived tions of the Ishmaelites, and the of a settled organ and government, promise made by God to Abraham, such as Turkey, Mohammedanism, of making his so? Ishmael a great like ancient paganism, must neces- people. Mohammed claimed descent sarily disappear from the earth, and from Abraham, and no doubt was be relegated to that chaos of false familiar with the prophecy which, as religions and exploded theories, the we shall see, he was marvellously history of which serves to astonish, destined to fulfil. instruct, and humiliate mankind. Of his youth we have no particu

It is our intention to sketch the lars, nor was it until his fortieth year rise and progress of Mohammedan- that he claimed to be favored with ism, to search its inner spirit, its celestial revelations. He appears to influence upon the world, and the have been a man of a serious and evidences at hand of its speedy dis- contemplative turn of mind, and fresolution. This forms one of the quently passed whole months in remost curious and instructive chapters tirement. His first revelations cane in the history of religion, and from heaven through the angel awakens a feeling of awe and grati- Gabriel. He was instructed to tude for the possession of that divine destroy idolatry, and to announce faith which at once secures us against himself as the apostle of God. the deceits of our own hearts and Then he phrased the formula, There the machinations of the evil spirit is but one God, and Mohainmed is and his instruments.

the apostle of God. For three years Mohammed, the Prophet of Islam, he had made only five converts. His was born A.D. 570, at Mecca, in kinsmen with few exceptions kept Arabia. He sprang from a sacer- aloof from him, and regarded his dotal tribe who were intrusted with enthusiasm as dangerous to his own the care of the Caaba, or sacred stone safety and the peace of the state. of the Arabians, which they fabled The opposition at length became so fell down from heaven, and which, violent that he was obliged to flee very probably, was an aerolite. This from Mecca to Medina, a flight or huge black stone still plays a part in hegira which forms the chronological Islamism, having been retained by era of the Moslems (July 16th, A.D. Mohammed in deference to the tradi- 622). tional respect of his tribe. The Stung by his treatment by his

friends and neighbors, the revengeful his opinions spread rapidly, and in spirit of Mohammed sought in the his dual character of prophet and sword the most available instrument king he conducted himself admirafor retaliating his wrongs and spread bly. There was nothing divine or ing his religion: 36.I can do with supernatural in his conduct, as we the sword what Moses dielo with his understand the terms. His most rod,” he exclaimed. The warlike complimentary biographers represent spirit which he infused into his creed him as a man full of human passions, held the ascendency pyes the. miider anger, lust, deceitfulness, and revirtues for centuries. The military venge. Carlyle makes much ado profession was the path to both tem- about the veneration which he inporal and eternal rewards. Paradise spired among men who were his was opened to the gallant defender every-day companions, and argues of the Moslem creed. His wounds therefrom that he must have proved would shine as glorious suns in the his right to the title of prophet; but paradise of the blessed. Celestial we must remember that the courtiers wings would supply the missing of Caligula worshipped his horse as limbs. “One drop of blood," said a god. Besides, Mohammed was he, “shed in the cause of religion infinitely superior to the rude and was more salutary than two months superstitious men that surrounded of incessant prayer and fasting." him, and his other than supernatural The Koran records the intervention qualities, his bravery, his finesse, his of angelic warriors in several battles. magnificent beauty, were all calcuFull of enthusiasm, the Moslem sol- lated to leave deep impressions upon diers, assured of eternal happiness, untutored minds, and to inspire love rushed upon the foe with the war-cry and admiration in rude bosoms. of Islam. They are paralleled in The successors of Mohammed modern history by the troopers of spread the terror of the Moslem Cromwell.

name from Grenada to Delhi, and The Bedouin tribes were soon con- founded one of the mightiest dyverted by the sword, and after some nasties of modern times. The lust parleying the inhabitants of Mecca for power and pelf was early fostered threw open their gates to the Pro- by Mohammed, who ordained a phet. Mohammed was desirous of liberal division of the spoils of conenlisting the Jews in his behalf, and quered territory among his soldiers. an acknowledgment of his prophetic This was, no doubt, the most attracclaims; but they obstinately refused tive feature in his religion to his first to recognize him as the Messiah, and followers, who were famous as mermade of him an irreconcilable enemy. chants and thieves. The idea that He witnessed unmoved the massacre made Cromwell's soldiers invinciof hundreds of the unfortunate chil- ble was the same that inspired the dren of Israel. Gibbon thinks it followers of the Prophet. The Calwould have been happy for that un- vinistic doctrine of absolute predesfortunate race had they recognized tination was not more familiar to the Mohammed as the Expected of Na- conquerors at Worcester than to the tions (a title which he affected), for Mussulman besiegers of Damascus. he was anxious to number them among Always reckless of life, the Arab had the faithful. The many Levitical now a reason for death. It was the ordinances of the Koran, such as entrance to a paradise which his lustration, purification, and the pro- sensual mind thoroughly appreciated hibition of swine's flesh are taken and enjoyed. Cooling fountains, from the Jews, and Jerusalem is one delightful groves, troops of beautiful of the three holy cities.

damsels, and all the physical gratifiDuring the lifetime of Mohammed cations that could be described or

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