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period,) that the Richard 11. of Shake turn, after a period of mutual prevaspeare, as far as disposition and habits lence, yielded to the prosing Interludes, are concerned, is little more than a which for a long time kept possession counterpart of the Edward II. of of the theatre, if theatre it might be Marlow. His “Rieh Jew of Malta" called. Of all the pieces written unhas lately become too well known to der these various titles, those by John need particular illustration, but it will Heywood, the witty epigrammatist of require some <w remarks in their the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward proper place.
VI., and Queen Mary, are alone readBut besides Marlow, who has left able; the rest are valuable only as eight plays behind him either wholly matters of antiquarian research, and written by his hand, or in the compo- have very little connection, and had sition of which he assisted some bro- probably no influence upon the tragedy ther (not rival) poet, “ according to or comedy of the end of the reign of the noble practice of those times,” Elizabeth. Of course, I shall not waste there were many others who preced- time upon them; but such as feel ed Shakespeare in the very line which any desire to look at specimens of the he continued : if it cannot be esta- kind, will find several, perhaps too blished that he borrowed from them many, in Hawkins' Origin of the as freely as from Marlow, either in Drama, and in Dodsley's Collection of plot, character, or language, it will Old Plays. They are merely the relies still be curious to ascertain, by critical of expiring barbarism, and are to be examination, how far he found dra- esteemed rather for what they are not matic representations such as he left than for what they are—for the semithem, or how far he improved upon savage customs and propensities they the system already established. For omit, than for any polish of style or rethe purpose of investigating this sub- finement of manners to be discovered ject, I shall have occasion to notice, as in them. It is fit, however, that I í proceed, many productions that have should here cursorily mention a man scarcely seen the light for centuries, or to whom dramatic poetry is, I think, have remained shut up in the cabinets much more under obligation than is of the curious: among them will be usually imagined; I mean Richard Edthe plays of Robert Greene, Thomas wards, who, being one of the gentlemen Lodge, John Lily, Thomas Nash, of the chapel, very early in the reign George Peele, Thomas Kyd, John of Elizabeth, wrote two plays, the one Marston, George Chapman, andothers, upon the story of Damon and Pywhose names and works will be after thias, and the other upon that of Pawards particularised. I should ob- lamon and Arcite: both were acted serve, that although many, indeed before 1566, and were quite new in most, of the plays by these poets were their kind. The persons in the mysnot printed until after Shakespeare be- teries, moralities, and interludes, were gan to be known, they were obvious- mere abstractions-non-entities, with ly written many years before. Seven whom the auditors could have no feelral of those, whose names I have above ings in common : thus in the New inserted, died before the year 1593. Custom, among the players' names, I shall contrast and compare their ear we find Perverse-doctrine, God's-felilier and later performances, to mark city, and Light-of-the-Gospel ; but in the changes that had taken place, and, Edwards's pieces the characters are as I said before, to see how far some men and women, in whose adventures, who lived longest accommodated them- sufferings, or success, some interest selves to Shakespeare, and how far may be taken : the friendship of Da. Shakespeare regulated himself by mon and Pythias, and the dreadful them.
pause between life and death which A great deal has been written to il- the latter in consequence experiences, lustrate the rise and progress of our are truly dramatic subjects, and the stage, from the earliest times--to ex- language is much superior to the crabplain and criticise the tedious and un- bed crank stuff that preceded it. The intelligible Mysteries first performed first is, however, the most important by religious societies, and to show how, difference, and, if I mistake not, it in the course of time, they gave place may be said to have aided materially to the scarcely less tedious but more in producing a revolution in that intelligible Moralities, which, in their particular ; for, perhaps, there never
he can ;
was a man in his day more popular to the Encyclopædia Britannica, than Edwards, or who was more look- which I happened lately to peruse ed up to, not only by the men of let, with a great deal of pleasure, there ters of his own time, but considerably are some positions laid down in treatafterwards. I feel an irresistible in- ing of the transmission of heat in ga clination to make a very short extract seous fluids, which seem to me rather from the address of Pythias to Diony- questionable, and to have been somesius, when he finds that Damion does what hastily adopted. I shall take not return according to his promise : the liberty of shortly stating such I am not loth to do whatsoever I said, remarks as occurred to me on this inNe at this present pinch of death am í dis- teresting topic, for the consideration may'd :
of such as are more conversant with The Gods now, I know, have heard my these subjects than I can pretend to be. fervent prayer,
The learned author states, that That they have reserv'd me to this passing heat is transmitted through a gaseous great honour
fluid in two ways, viz. either by means To die for my friend, whose faith even now I do not mistrust,
of that circulating current which is My friend Damon is no false traitor-he is excited by the expansion of the partitrue and just !
cles of the fluid that successively come But sith he is no God, but man, he must into contact with the heated body; do as he may,
or by means of a singular undulatory The wind may be contrary, sickness may pulsation which the particles of the
let him, or some misadventure by the fluid sustain when excited by a heated way;
body, but without any change of their Which the eternal Gods turn all to my relative position, and with an intensity glory,
which varies with the nature of the That fame may resound how Pithias for heated surface. This hypothesis he Damon did die !
illustrates by the experiment of two He breaketh no oath who doth as much as
equal hollow balls of thin bright silver His mind is here ! he hath some let-he is containing hot water, one of which was but a man.
coated with cambric, and which it The sentiments are not only noble, time that the uncoated ball lost 11
seems lost 20 parts of heat in the same but nobly expressed: the irregularity parts. Of this expenditure, he says, of the lines is designed, in order to re
(but he does not tell us, and I am lieve the ear from the recurrence of unable to conjecture how he ascertainthe rhymes at stated intervals.
ed the fact,) that 10 parts are transe About this date, it is fit to remark, mitted from each ball by the slow all dramatic compositions were in circulation of the heated air; and the rhyme, and it will be necessary for me
remainder, consisting of a part from to inquire by what means, and at what the naked, and 10 from the cased time blank verse was first employed in surface, is darted through the medium our poetry, and introduced upon our by the aërial pulses. The same efstage. The question is far from being fect is produced by a coating of several uninteresting, and I shall follow it by folds of goliheaters'skin. Inorder to acan investigation of still more import count for this surprising phenomenon, ance connected with the subject of he supposes, or rather affirms, that these articles, viz. the inode in which
“ air must approach to a boundary of the severe unities of the ancients were pellicle or cumbric, much nearer. than exploded, and the romantic unities of to a surface of inetul, from which it the imagination happily established in their stead. These topics are,
is always divided by more than the I be500th
part of an inch.” lieve, quite new, but they must be re
This bold deduction is rather startserved to a future number. I. P. C.
ling, and would seem to be supported by no sufficient reason. It gives to
my mind but an unsatisfactory exPROPAGA- planation of the phenomena, and it
hardly renoves the difficulty a step
farther; for it cannot well be conMR EDITOR,
ceived how a particle of air, pressed In the very able and ingenious article on “ Climate” in the Supplement En. Sup. Vol. 111. Part I. Page 196.
down by its own weight, and that of which it does produce may, however, I the incumbent atmosphere, can keep conceive, be accounted for in two itself more distant from any one sur ways. In the first place, any roughface than from any other, unless by ening of the surface, however slight, assuming, that different substances exposes, in place of a polished and exert a répulsive power upon air, and perfectly equal surface, an infinite in wifferent degrees ; which I cannot number of minute points, froin which imagine any ground for supposing. the heat (on the supposition, that a
The phenomenon is a very singular part of it passes off by radiation) is one,--but I think several other con diffused more freely to the ambient jectures may be formed as to the air ; just as the electric fluid is atcause of it, and I shall state those tracted and dissipated most powerfulwhich have occurred to myself. ly by pointed bodies. There is also,
When we attend to the conditions in fact, a larger surface presented by of the experiment, we observe, that the same body in a rough than in a the substances employed are globes of polished state; on which account, silver highly polished. Now, these there ought, ceteris paribus, to be are precisely the surfaces which most proportionally a larger quantity of powerfully reflect heut and light ; heat evolved from it in a given time. for this reason, I presume, that they But, seconilly, the polished metallic are those which of all others are most surface may be conceived to effect the impenetrable to the latter fluid, seeing result in another way, and it is this: that the thinnest leaf of gold or silver, From the polished silver ball the light less than the 1-10000th of an inch in will be strongly reflected, in lines thickness, does not admit the passage diverging and crossing each other in of the smallest ray of light through all directions. A kind of atmosphere its substance; so that where none of bright light may thus be imagined can be transmitted or absorbed, the to be powerfully accumulated on the whole must be reflected. Considering surface of the ball, which becomes the experiment in this light, I should weaker at every recession from it, as have been apt to conjecture, that a the rays diverge. It may be conportion of the heat was continually ceived, that the minute aërial pulses reflected inwards by the polished sur which form one of the principal means face of the ball, but that it was not of the propagation of the heat, may easy to imagine how this internal re- be, in some degree, ebstructed and flection could be affected by a coating deranged by this brilliant conflict of applied externally on the silver. We luminous atoms, which may prevent must therefore look out for another the shell of air surrounding the ball way of accounting for it.
from receiving the full impression of And here it is clear, primo intuitu, its calorific influence, and, therefore, that the difficult transiission of heat occasion the pulsations to be more from the uncovered ball, depends in feebly propagated. Again, if the a great measure on the polish of the warm pulsations proceeding from a metal; for I understand it to be a heated body, be supposed to be alfact. that if the polish of the metal ways connected with a series of equal be destroyed, or its surface roughened, and opposite cold pulses proceedling the transinission will go on much from the colder bodies around, which more rapidly. It was on account of maintain the balance of the transmitthis property of polished metallic sur- ting inelium, and assist in abstractfaces, that it was proposed to cover ing caloric from the heated body;the cylinders of steam-engines and then, whatever diminishes the flow of other vessels, in which it is of in- the one series of pulses will, in an portance to preserve a high tempera- equal degree, lessen that of the other, ture, with a cover or case of polished and thus the total effect will be copper. It is impossible, however, to doubled. Besides, as the aerial pulses conceive, how the mere destruction of are held to be capable of being rethe polish can have any cffect in less- flected by a concave polished mirror, ening the assumed repulsion between which repels both series of pulses the surface of the metal, and the par without having its own temperature ticlesot air, or in bringing the two sub- materially affected, the cold pulsastances nearer to each other. The effect tions may, in the experiment under
cliscussion, be actually reflected from principally propagated to considerable the polished ball before they have distances. That the system of aërial time to produce their full effect. pulses form an important part of the
That the reflection of the light from means by which heat is propagated the polished ball has some influence through gaseous media is now cerin deranging the regular transmission tainly rendered highly probable. But of heat from its surtuce, may also be to assert that it entirely usurps the inferred from a parallel fact of a very functions which were heretofore assingular nature. It is well known cribed to the principle of radiation, that the sun's rays, shining brightly is, I think, promoting it to a rank to upon a strong tire in a room, will, which it does not appear to be entitin a short time, absolutely extinguish led. It is not easy to conceive any it. I never heard any attempt to other mode in which a heated body assign a cause for this fact. But if suspended in vacuo can throw off heat the conjecture just hinted at respect- until it is reduced to the common ing the action of light should be found temperature of the surrounding boto be correct, it may probably be ac- dies; for, in such circumstances, no counted for in a similar manner. aërial pulses can take place. Again, That some action of this nature does in a room warmed by a brisk fire, the take place is probable, from the result heat is always propagated most powerof the experiment itself. For when tully in a direction perpendicular to the brightness and reflecting power of the incandescent surfaces, whether the the metallic ball are in a small degree air of the room is agitated or at rest, diminished, by coating it with a sin- But suppose the air, in place of being gle film of goldbeaters' leaf, the trans- perfectly still, to be flowing slowly in mission becomes a little quicker, and a direction parallel to the side of the its rapidity is progressively increased room in which the fire is placed, then, by the application of successive coat- it we exclude the principle of radiaings of the same material. It might tion in favour of that of aërial pulses, be worth while to examine whether, the most intense heat ought to be felt in the experiment alluded to, the heat neither in the point towards which will not be more freely transmitted the current of air is flowing, nor in from the naked ball in the dark,—and the direction perpendicular to the fireif this should be the fact, the justness place; because the corpuscle of air of the conjecture might be verified by nearest to the fire, while it is contractsome such process as the following. ing in the act of surrendering its heat First, try how many coats of gold- to the next adjoining corpuscle, is, by beaters' leat will make the emanation the supposition, carried sideways in from the polished ball equal to that the general current ; the same influfrom a roughened or unpolished one. ence pervades the whole series of corNext, ascertain by the photometer puscies ;-and therefore, upon the hywhat quantity of light admitted by a pothesis on which we are now reasonhole in a shuiter into a dark room willing, the most intense propagation of be reflected from a plate of unpelished heat should be in a direction comsilver; and then, how many coats of pounded ot' that of the flow of the gegoldbeaters' skin will reduce the light neral current of air, and that in which reflected from a similar plate of po- the most powerful transmission would lished silver to an equality with the have taken place if the air had been former. If the results should nearly at rest. The direction resulting from correspond, the conjecture might be this composition of forces, supposing judge, well founded, and might lead them both uniforın, should be the to some curious results respecting the diagonal of a parallelogram, the dinature and action of light.
mensions of which will depend on the The preceding observations proceed relation which the intensity of the on the supposition, th:t heat is pro- pulses bears to the velocity of the curpagated through a gaseous medium, rent of air. If this should not turn not merely by the slow circulation of out to be the fact, then I conceive the the medium itself, and by the aërial aid of some other principle, such as pulses ; but also by the actual radia- radiation, must be called in to account tion of the particles of heat, which for it. But I think the principle of had hitherto been conceived to be the radiation is quite consonant with the mode by which that subtle fluid was opinion entertained by the learned
COINS OF ROBERT BRUCE.
author as to the nature of heat, name scend to Robert II. as probably as Roc ly, that it is “the fluid of light in a bert de Bruce's to his son, King Dae state of combination with its substra- vid II. It is very true, that from the tum.” If this be true, it is not un- reign of Elizabeth of England, like reasonable to suppose that when li ness was considerably attended to; her berated from this substratum, it should coins are tolerably like, and so are depart, as it entered, in radiating James's, and those of Charles I. ; those lines.
of Charles II. are remarkably so—but OTIOSUS. during the 12th, 13th, and 14th cen.
turies, the faces were executed without any regarrl to the similarity with
the original. Notwithstanding which, MR EDITOR,
of the coins of those centuries UPON reading Mr Morison's let
are of better workmanship and silver ter in your last number, I examined than those of the 15th and early part very carefully two coins of Robert, of the 16th centuries. which I had in my possession. The The last of the two coins I have first I shall treat of has the face in mentioned was found a few years profile, with the sceptre surmounted ago, with many others, in the ruins of with the fleur-de-lis before the face. the Castle of Urquhart, near Loch The legend is, “ Robertus Dei gra. Ness. I am your constant reader, Rex Scottorum." The reverse is di- &c. &c.
H. R. D. vided into quarters by the cross ; near M. Inverness-shire, the centre, between the arms of the
1st Dec. 1818. cross, are four mullets, around which is the legend, “Villa de Perth.” There de Bruce were the first of our Scottish
P. S.-As John Baliol and Robert is an exterior legend round the reverse, which I am somewhat doubtful Kings who used surnames, this fact of; but, allowing for abbreviations, I may account for the letter B being think it may be read, “ Dominus placed to denote his surname, in such
a questionable way, the thing being a Protector Maximus, Liberator Maximus,"—a motto very well according of the birth, or the estate, has been
novelty; during this age, the locality with the transactions of that age with the two Edwards. The other coin is alopted in place of the patronymicks,
which were used before, as well as dethe same, except that the face is full, signations from trades, or mental and between each branch of the cross,) iri- bodily distinctions, in conjunction with
the christian naine. stead of the four mullets. There is no letter B on these coins, such as Mr Morison has stated. Should the le
DR TROMP'S NATURE PERFECTED. gend on the reverse be such as I have stated, I have little doubt that the coin
Prospectus of the Plan. must be of Robert de Bruce, from its obvious allusions; the letter B (stated “ The world is in its infancy." to be behind the head) very naturally may allude to Bruce or Bannockburn, Dr Tromp having, during a period - probably not to any general ascen- of forty years of intense study and prodancy of that letter in what regarded found investigation, devoted the powers Robert's history ; if it did, Baliol as of his mind to the phenomena of the well as Bohun might be added to the human understanding, and the best list. The circuinstance of the family means of bringing this beautiful malikeness of the face to that on the coins chine to perfection, has the honour to of his son, David II. would have some announce to the inhabitants of Great weight, were it not from the circum- Britain, that he has made many disstance, that in those times the dies coveries, which only require to be prowere often the very same, (with the pounded that they may be aclmired; legend only changed,) for several and to be carried into practice, that a reigns ; even so late as the reign of new era in the history of intellect may Henry VIII. his coins have his fa- be introduced. Unless the world is so ther's face without the least alteration, blind to its own interests as to neglect the likeness being quite neglected ; so Dr Tromp, it will soon appear, that that the die of David's coin might de the disquisitions of Aristotle and