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nerable in its aspect; its mansions the surface of which was broken only seem to have resisted the assaults of by billows of somewhat more than the winds and rains which had fallen common magnitude, would be the upon the heads not only of our fathers, exactest resemblance of English landbut of“ the old time before them;" and scape ; and, though I know very well I could not behold them without a that there are mountains, and those very peculiar feeling when I consider- of very considerable size, in some ed that these probably were the very counties of England, the account abodes of the men by whom the secu- which I have given is strictly derived rity and independence of our country from what fell under my own obwere so often endangered ; and that, servation, and may, I apprehend, be within these walls might be regaled taken as the general rule to which the the warriors who returned triumphant others are but particular exceptions. from the field of Flodden.
The rich appearance which English pursued our journey farther to the scenery derives from the hedges and south, England assumed something trees with which it is adorned, is the of a fresher and more luxuriant ap- second peculiarity on which a stranger pearance; every stage seemed to carry would gaze. It is a long time, you us nearer to the perfection of what- know, since the great English philoever in landscape is beautiful or rich. logist reproached poor Scotland with An amazing extent of prospect, which her stone hedges and barren fences; is indeed common to every district of and, in truth, it is not to be wondered South Britain, was to be seen on every at, if a person born in the very centre hand; and it often occurred to me, of the fertility and grandeur of Stafthat a native of Scotland, who had fordshire, should thus express himseen but a small part of his native self. Every field in England is deland, might, if transported by some fended by a hedge of great and ununknown cause into any department shorn luxuriance, and the number of of English territory, have been able, wild flowers with which, in summer, at the first breaking of the spell which every hedge is adorned, must furnish held him, to declare that these were the finest of all contrasts to the bleaknot the features of the land of his ness and poverty of our northern byebirth, and that he was in the midst of paths. There are not, however, mascenery and of customs, to which his ny plantations of great extent, or of mind had not been familiarized by gloomy grandeur, in England; but any observation of his former life. the beauty which England derives Of these pecularities I shall now en from her trees is thus to be underdeavour to give you a particular his- stood : The fields are all very small, tory.
because the soil is very rich; every 'The first thing which strikes a field is surrounded by a few trees, Scotchman on visiting England, is the placed at considerable intervals along amazing extent of prospect which al- each of its sides ; so that an immense most in every situation characterizes extent of country, dressed out in this English landscape. In Scotland, you fashion, has the appearance of a countknow the view is almost constantly less multitude of contiguous little orinterrupted either by gentle eminen- chards, and the whole landscape has ces or lofty mountains : and even a character of cheerfulness which is those portions of Scottish territory not consistent with the dark and which are most distinguished for fer- gloomy grandeur of impervious fo. tility and uninterrupted prospect, as the Merse of Berwickshire, and the The county in which I at preCarse of Falkirk, can only be consider- sent reside, and Herefordshire, which ed as straths on a more magnificent is the adjoining one, are reckoned the scale, being generally bounded by gardens of England ; they are chamountains of proportional size. I can racterized by the same extent of proaver with the strictest truth, however, spect, and fertility of appearance, which that, (after losing sight of the Cheviot I have already taken notice of, and ridge,) except once in Yorkshire, I did they possess some beauties, and those not meet with any thing that had the not a few, which are peculiarly their least resemblance to mountains, or that Malvern hills are the very gave the slightest interruption to the finest my eyes ever behell, and, insange of vision. An unbounded ocean, deed, in all the images of hills which
my fancy has formed, I know not After all that I have said in favour that ever I arrived at any thing so of England, you must not imagine near the very perfection of beauty. that I have given up my fondness for They rise, as a lady here observed to my native land. No, my good felme, " without any seeming provoca- low, my heart is doubly wedded to tion," in the centre of the immense poor Scotland by every thing I have extent of level ground which stretches seen in England; and, even on the every way around them. They con score of good taste, I would despise sist of only one ridge of about seven or the man who, all circunstances coneight miles in length ;-their forms sidered, would for once make the comare truly beautiful, consisting of a parison. Repose seems to me to be fine waving outline, and gently peak- the prevailing character of English ed summits, and their turf, which, scenery. I was for sometime at a loss even now, when our northern moun to account for à certain stillness and tains are bleak and withered, is deep- want of interest with which, amid all ly tinged with a fresh and lively green, the richness of English landscape, I -is of the firmest consistence, and felt myself oppressed ; and I am in. the finest polish. The house in which debted for the solution to the obserwe reside stands half way up the hills, vation of a lady here, who lived a conand commands the most enchanting siderable time in Scotland, and is a view of perfectly level country, that great admirer of every thing Scottish. ever your eyes beheld. There is no She said to me one day, that she hill in the wide horizon to stop the thought there was a sleepiness about view. The eye ranges as far as its England which you never observed in own powers of vision can carry it, and Scotland. I think what I have said almost the whole extent of four coun- respecting the extent of prospect which ties is embraced at a single glance. characterizes England, will shew you So perfectly unbounded, indeed, is how just this observation is, and you the prospect from Malvern House, will, of course, immediately discover that, though we are something more what a mighty superiority' Scotland than a hundred miles west of London, possesses in the bold features by the flames of a house which had tak- which her veteran visage is marked. en fire, and was situated only eleven France is perhaps a still more luxumiles from the metropolis, were seen riant country than England, and in a fine evening to cast a broad and ter- Switzerland eonsists of barren moun. rific radiance over the distant horizon. tains, and dark narrow vallies ; but
As a farther recommendation of when was a Frenchman known to die my present situation, I may just in- of regret for the land of his birth, or form you, that it has something more
to shed those tears of heart-wrung of interest than mere natural scenery fondness which the song of his childcould give. It is classic ground, and hood colls down the war-worn cheek of to an admirer of Shakespeare, must the countryman of Tell! Yes, my good possess a charm of the very highest fellow, the English peasant has no influence. The Avon, on whose local attachment: In the midst of his banks fancy first found this enthusi- highly cultivated fields, he is as ready ast of Nature, is now, by the food to serve one master as another; and which has made it pass its barriers, he leaves the place of his birth, and distinctly visible from the window at the scene of his childish sports, with which I am sitting. Tewksbury is a heart elated with joy, and unaffectvisible, by its smoke, at a little dis- ed by one sentiment of regret, if, in tance from the mouth of this “ silver another quarter, higher wages are to stream.” Warwickshire offers its dime be the reward of his labours. There discovered plains on the left; and the are no bold features in his country by spire of Gloucester is glittering in the which an impression may be made on sunbeam on the right.
his heart, which ime can never ef* Flow on silver Avon, in song ever flow;
face: Beyond the Atlantic, or ʼmid
India's citron Be the swans on thy bosom still whitet
groves, he sings not than snow ;,
with an emotion of indescribable inEver pure be thy stream, like his fame may terest, “ We twa hae run about the it spread,
braes," or We twa hae paidl't in And the turf ever hallowed that pillowed the burn;" por does any image of his head."
those much loved scenes, in which,
with the companions of his infancy, truth, my dear fellow, the image of he pursued the sports of childhood, a “ burn running, amang braes, break his morning slumbers, and re- dressed in the peculiar style of Scotstore him with a sad heart to a society tish scenery, an image so frequently and to occupations which the idea of made use of in our Scottish lays, and happier scenes has rendered irksome which never fails, when exhibited in and unsupportable. Feelings like the reality, to warm the heart of every these, sometimes painful, but always true North Briton, was a thing which interesting, and never to be exchang- I only once witnessed during my ed for the profoundest ease of the whole journey; and never once did Í most careless enjoyment, are the sole see the joyful spectacle of happy boys privileges of the natives of such lands issuing from their schoolhouse. I as our own, and they are the more to see, my good friend, that my paper is be valued, that they are always ac- almost filled, though I have very much companied with an energy and manli- which I intended to have said upon ness of character, which is the great- this subject. My acquaintance with est good that a state can wish for its England is as yet but scanty, and members, and to which every thing what I have said may be only my first else should be held subordinate. Eng- imperfect impressions. There can be land, as well as Scotland, has been no doubt, however, that England has the scene of many a glorious contest, many things to captivate and delight but of these things the English pea- the mind; and with all the degradasant knows not the history, and is tion of character to which I have recareless about the scene; bis heart is presented the English peasantry as not warmed by any recollection of the liable, from the circumstances of their deeds of his forefathers, and he looks country, and their want of education, with no feeling of heartfelt reverence there is still a politeness and a smarton the scenes which have been dyed ness about them which is very agreewith their blood : for his mind was able. I have met with many innever formed by early tuition to trace stances of their willingness to the records of time long elapsed, nor blige, and I have been particularly did any history of “ Wallace Wight" charined with the sensible and manly inspire his infant heart with thoughts way in which even the little boys anof glory. In our own native land a swer the questions you put to them, peculiar system of poetry and music and extend their remarks if you perhave thrown a borrowed interest upon mit them to be free. There is a booscenes in themselves sufficiently strik- byishness and rustic simplicity about ing: The banks of Teviot and the vales all Scotchmen, which can only be acof Ettrick and Yarrow, are but spe- counted for from peculiarity of nacimens of an interest which a native tional character, and which to an of Scotland attaches froin similar rea- Englishman appears very ridiculous. sons to by far the greater number of But if you behave to an Englishman the streams and glens with which his with proper dignity, and never seein infant years are familiar; and even the to think him your superior, you will most rugged scenes have become en- immediately see, that the energy of deared by some fact which has digni- the Scotch character is very deeply fied their history, or by some power- impressed upon the minds of all Engful passion which we know to have lishmen. This booby appearance, inbeen there experienced. But of all deed, together with the peculiarity of this copious source of powerful inter- our dialect, are the only things upon est, the humble native of England which the English found that conknows nothing. His streams are dis- tempt for us which they have sometinguished in his mind only by the times expressed, and any person will purposes of utility which they serve, easily forgive this, who recollects what or by the opulence of the proprietors a disposition he has sometimes felt to through whose domains they fow: play upon a countryman if he had an and his glens (if, indeed, he can at awkward behaviour, and a simplicity all find any) are never traced by him in his manner of expression, even in silent ecstacy, while he bends a- though he might know him to be a bove the footsteps of the warriors who man in every other respect of the trod them, or pictures the images of very highest intellectual and moral those fond votaries of tender passion worth. by whom they were frequented. In
(To be continued.)
MODE OF LIVING AMONG Scottish therstanes, the soume of five hundred
FARMERS DURING THE EARLY PART merks Scots,” as a competent joinOF LAST CENTURY.
ture in the event of her surviving
him; while she, on the other hand, MR EDITOR,
makes over to him “ all and haill the I have lately read with a good deal soume of one hundred pounds Scots of satisfaction, a paper which appear. money,” † as the reputable tocher of ed in some of the first numbers of a substantial farmer's daughter. your New Series, on the Change of My grandfather died in 1745, leavÅlanners in Scotland in the early part ing a family of two sons and a daughof last century. I have always es- ter, in what were then reckoned very teemed such memorials of the olden comfortable circumstances. In fact, times, particularly when derived from besides the stock of a small farm, he actual observation, extremely interest- left upwards of L. 300 Sterling to be ing; and I have been induced by the divided among his three children. perusal of the above article, to com- This was no contemptible fortune in mit to paper a few memoranda of my these times; but to understand its own on a like subject. The obser- relative value, it will be necessary to vations of an old farmer, however, make due allowance not only for the (as you will of course anticipate,) depreciation of money since that peinust necessarily be restricted to a riod, but still more for the mighty much narrower circle, and to a hum- change in the mode of living among bler class of society. What I have at all ranks of society. As a curious present to say, indeed, relates almost evidence of this, I send you the subentirely to the former state of the a- joined inventory of my grandfather's gricultural classes in the southern household furniture, taken by one of districts of Scotland ; and I have en- his sons at the time of his decease. deavoured to illustrate the subject
* L. 27, 15s. 6 d. Sterling. chiefly by describing to you the com
+ L. 8, 6s. Ed. Sterling. mon economy of my father's household.
# Ane Inventar of ye Insight Plenishing You must not, therefore, look for any belonging to my late Father.-Taken the thing like a full discussion of the mat- 15th of Febr. 1746. ter, nor any complete picture of rustic
Impr. four beds. life and manners. I can only pre It. two fitgangs. tend to give you a few of the traits
It. three big chists. that have left the most vivid impres It. four smal chists. sion on my own memory, ---leaving to It. two stands. you, Mr Editor, or some of your in It. ane amrie and two cubbords. telligent correspondents, the task of It. ane wooln wheel. filling up the outline, and drawing
It. ane lint wheel. general conclusions.
It. ane chak reel. Hy ancestors, so far back as I can It. ane big table.
Il. ane ovall table. trace them, (which I am proud to do
It. ane langsettle. to the reign of Charles II.) have been,
It. six shires (chairs). like myself, “ tillers of the ground.
It. four stools. I shall not, however, attempt to carry It. two meal arks. you back to those evil times, when my It. three tubs. great-grandfather suffered many seve It. a flesh boat. rities for conscience sake ; but I shall It. four butter kitts. begin with quoting one or two family papers, to shew the frugal mode of it. six milk bowies. living that prevailed about the begin
It. two stone fluets ? ning of last century among people of our rank. The first of these is my
It. two kail potts and a kettle.
It. ane brass pan. grandfather's marriage-contract with
It. ane salt fatt. his first wife, dated February 19,
It. ane brander. 1707. In this document, which is
It. ane girdle. very formally drawn out in due legal
It. ane ladle. style, the bridegroom engages to set Ito a souin scive. tle on his “ future spouse, Margaret It. ane babrick. Paisley, lawfull dauchter to the de It. ane meal skep. ceist Thomas Paisley, tenant in Bro.
It. two basons.
It three coags.
It two stoups.
There is now scarcely a respectable Hinds, or married servants with sepa. hind in that quarter of the country, rate houses, were not then common; who could not muster a more valua- but the shepherd had a house and kail ble array of moveables. And yet the yard allotted him as at present. When worthy goodman who owned this fru, all at home, our whole family genegal gear, was not in his day accounted rally amounted to from fifteen to either mean or miserly; but, on the eighteen souls,-a number, perhaps, contrary, maintained a reputable cha- somewhat more than will usually be racter for hospitality, and lived in ha- found now on a farm of the same exbits of friendship and occasional fa- tent,--but maintained certainly in a mily intercourse, not only with friends much more frugal manner. Every and neighbours of his own rank, but farmer then killed his owr. beef and also with his landlord, (a small but mucton, brewed his own beer, and respectable proprietor,) and with the maintained his wife and children, minister of the parish.
as well as servants, on home proviMy father, who was the eldest son, sions. Groceries were little used, about this time entered upon an ex- bakers’ bread very little,-and butcellent farm of 500 acres, partly ara- cher meat from the market not at all, ble and partly pasturage, for which In regard to the last article, the unihe paid a rent of L. 100 Sterling; and form practice was to kill a bullock ait was reckoned dear enough taken at bout Martinmas, (called from that cirthe time. Yet the same farm was cumstance, I suppose, The Mart,) let six years ago to a worthy neigh- which, being well cured, and served bour of mine (who now occupies il) out with great economy, kept the for L. 1000 per annuin.
So much house in salted beef till the end of the have times altered, and agriculture following autumn. Pork occasionally, improved during the last 70 years. with a lamb or two in their season, Soon after entering to this farm, my and brazy mutton atother times, contris father married the daughter of a small buted to assist the Mart in bringing laird or portioner, who brought him round the year. To support such a a handsome dowry of 100 guineas. family in this manner, would be quite With this addition to his patrimony, impossible now-a-days; and even then he throve apace, and brought up a fa- it would have been impossible, had mily of nine sons and two daughters; not the whole economy of a farmall of whom, except one, he had the sa house been upon a very different foottisfaction to see well married and esta- ing from our present system. blished in the world, before his death, Little of the jealous distinction of which happened about the year eighty. ranks which now subsists between the -But it is now time to give you some farming class and their hired servants, specimens of our mode of living, which was then known. Every household entirely corresponded with that of our formed, in fact, but one society, as well neighbours in the same station. as one family. Masters and servants
Our farm employed three ploughs; dined at the same table,-assembled and, besides the master and his fa- round the same fireside,-and conmily, our household usually consisted versed together on common topics. of four men and three women ser If there was less refinement in the vants. The ploughmen (as is still one class than at present, there was the practice) slept in the stable loft. also less vulgarity in the other, from
this intercourse; and there was unIt. ane puther (pewter) stoup and jug. questionably more mutual kindness It. 6 puther plaits.
and reciprocal attachment. It. three lim (?) trenchers.
A description of our common mode It. a lim dish.
of living in my father's time will give It. ll timber trenchers. It. a timber stoupe.
you a pretty accurate idea of the sysIt. 3 pigs
tem that prevailed about the middle It. six plaits.
of last century. A long stout table It. six timber caps.
stood near the window of the kitchen, It twelve horne spoons.
(an apartment also sometimes called It. eight puther spoons.
the Ha', and which was contrived to It. two dozen of bottles.
serve both purposes.) At meals, the It. cruik and clips, tongs, and flesh goodman took his seat at the head of hook,
this table; next him sat his own faa