« ElőzőTovább »
from any number of irregular the like from the mutual reflection and repulsion, number of regular figures, and thus which produce a change of the images.” to present him the greatest variety for the choice of his design. But, of Kircher, printed in 1646, we have
In the Ars Magna Lucis et Umbre with the view of copying the design it is still most convenient in
an account of the same circumstance, tice, in order to obtain a succession of and also of the repetition of the secpatterns, to draw the irregular figures tors round the centre of the circle. on paper, and to apply the simple
A wonderful property,” says he, glasses without the apparatus of tubes
“ and one which has not, as far as I and object plates, however admirably know, been observed by any one, is these may be adapted for effect. We exhibited with two specula, so conare disposed, therefore, rather to rank structed as to open and shut like a the Kaleidoscope among those ingeni: which you have described a semicircle
book; and placed on any plane in ous philosophical contrivances which have been at various times invented to divided into its degrees. For, if the amuse the public, only that it is su
point in which the specula meet be perior to any thing of the kind that placed in the centre of the semicircle, has ever been proposed.
so that the side of each speculum shall A good deal of discussion having of an object will only be seen once,
stand upon the diameter, the image taken place as to the original invention of the Kaleidoscope, and as it inay the specula, the true one, and one
and twoobjects will appear, one without interest our readers, we shail state what has been collected on this sub- within, the image. But if the sides ject. The repetition and reversion of be placed at an angle of 120°, you will images in a glass is noticed in the
see the image of the object within the Magia Naturalis of Baptista Porta, a
specula twice, that is, along with the Neapolitan nobleman, who flourished real image, three objects .. But about the latter part of the sixteenth if the specula intercept an angle of century, and was distinguished for 90°; you will see the circle divided inhis zeal in promoting philosophical to four parts, and four objects; ..... pursuits. The following is an extract in the same manner, at an angle of from that work :
00°, you will see a hexagon with six
ubjects.” He then applies the prin“ In the following manner we may con- ciple to some curious contrivances struct a mirror for seeing a multitude of which, by his own account, filled his objects on a plain surface. This kind of spectators with astonishment. With mirror, when constructed, is what is called one candle he shows how to make a polyphaton, that is to say, multiplying ; complete chandlelier.
“ With angles for, by opening and shutting, it shows of 120°, 72°, and 45°, you will see," twenty and more images of one single fi- says he, “ with no less delight than allgure. If, therefore, you wish to prepare it, miration, a chandelier with three, with let two brazen or crystal rectangular mir. five, and with eight branches." rors be erected on the same base, and let
But we need not multiply these quothe proportion of length be one and an half of the width, or any other proportion ;
tations, for the combination of glasses and let each side, for the whole of its in this manner is described, we believe, length, be so connected together, that they in many of the optical works of that may easily be shut and opened like a age. The first and the only distinct book, and that the angles may be varied, account, however, which we have seen as they are usually constructed at Venice ; of the application of these glasses to for if you place one object opposite to the the formation of designs, is in a treaface of each, you will see several figures; tise on gardening, published in 1717 and this, in proportion as you shut it clos- by R. Bradley, who was afterwards er, and the angle shall be less. But, by Professor of Botany at the Univeropening, the objects will be reduced in
It is entitled, number; and the more obtuse the angle
sity of Cambridge. under which you see it, the fewer objects and Gardening, both Philosophical
“ New Improvenients of Planting will be seen. finger as the object, you will see nothing and Practical, &c. &c. with a New but fingers. The right fingers will be seen Invention whereby more designs of on the right side, and the left on the left Garden Platts may be made in an side, which is contrary to the usual custom hour, than can be found in all the with looking-glasses ; but this happens books now extant. Likewise several
Rare Secrets for the Improvement of the centre, where we shall find a baFruit Trees, Kitchen Gardens, and son of an hexagonal figure.” After Greenhouse Plants. By Richard showing the transformation of some Bradley, Fellow of the Royal So- other figures ; " in a word,” says he, ciety." In the preface to Part II. " we may by this means produce some he observes, “ In the first place, thousands of good draughts.” my reader will find the descrip He then refers to a plate, in one tion and use of my invention for part of which a number of figures the more speedy drawing or designing are thrown together in disorder, and of garden platts; and I am of opinion, he shows how, by moving the glasthat when he once understands the ses over it, an immense number right use of it, I shall have his thanks of designs may be exhibited. At for that discovery.". The following is the end uf the first example he says, the description of the instrument: “ And so, by moving your glasses in
“Since the instrumenti now design like manner from point to point, the to treat of has afforded some pleasure draughts will differ every variation of to many of my acquaintance, I have the glasses, till you have discovered been easily persuaded to make it pub- at least fifty plans differing from one lic. It is of that nature, that the best another.” And, in conclusion, he obdesigners or draughtsmen may im- serves ; “ So that, from one plan aprove and help their fancies by it, lone, not exceeding the bigness of a and may with more certainty hit the man's hand, we may vary the figure humour of the gentlemen they are to at least two hundred tiines; and so, work for, without being at the trouble consequently, from tive figures of the of making many varieties of figures like nature, we might show about a in garcen platts, which will lose time, thousand several sorts of garden and cause an unnecessary expence, platts ; and, if it should happen that which frequently discourages gentle- the reader has any number of plans men from making up their gardens. for parterres or wilderness works aIn short, the charge of the instru- bout him, he may, by this method, ment is so small, and its use so de- alter them at his pleasure, and prolightful and profitable, that I doubt duce such innumerable varieties, that not its favourable reception in the it is not possible the most able deworld.
signer would have cor
ed.” “ But, to proceed We must choose “And, seeing I have given such di. two pieces of looking-glass, of equal rections in this chapter as I hope may bigness, of the size of a long square, inform the curious of the use of this five inches in length and four in new invented instrument, I think it breadth. It must be covered on the may not be improper to advertise, back with paper or silk, to prevent that the publisher of these papers is rubbing off the silver, which would provided with glasses of several sizes, else be too apt to crack off by frequent really fitted up for the experiment, at use. This covering for the back of the following prices :- The small sort the glasses must be so put on, that at 38. and the other at 5s.” nothing of it may appear about the Comparing this description with edges on the bright side.
the above account of the Kaleido. - The glasses being thus prepared, scope, there can be no doubt, we think, they must be laid face to face, and that the two instruments are hinged together, so that they may be sentially the same. The great object made to open and shut at pleasure, of both of them is to produce regular like the leaves of a book.”
from irregular figures. This object Mr Bradley then gives various ex-. is accomplished in both of them by amples of the use of his instrument. the repeateri addition of the irregular Placing the glasses upon any irregular figure to itself reversing its position figure, such as fig 14, the one glass at each step of the process. These on the line AC, and the other on the repetitions again are effected in both line BC, he exhibits its transforma. of them by the principle of the reflection into fig. 15 ; “ so,” says he, tion of light. Both of them consist "shall we discover an entire garden of two reflectors set together at a cerplatt in a circular form, (if we look tain angle ; --the irregular figures are into the glasses,) divided into six in both of them brought quite in conparts, with as many walks leading to tact with the extremities of these re
flectors; and in both of themtheraysof by Porta, and its application first to light from the irregular objects fly produce amusing effects by Kircher, from glass to glass in the same man- and afterwards also to the formation ner, and, according to the same well of regular designs by Bradley; yet to known laws, until reaching the eye Dr Brewster unquestionably belongs they there form a series of images ar the merit of carrying the instrument ranged in both of them in the same to its highest perfection. That of order. Though it might have an- Bradley, like all first attempts, was swered, however, its intended purpose rude and imperfect in its operation ; of facilitating the formation of de- and, from its incommodious form, signs, and though it seems also to quite unfit for popular use. To Dr have afforded no little amusement and Brewster, therefore, we are indebted surprise to the spectators, the instru- for all those improvements already dement of Bradley is unquestionably far scribed ; without which the instruinferior to the Kaleidoscope in both ment would never perhaps have been these respects, but more especially in generally known, and which have so point of brilliant and striking effect. changed its appearance, and augmentThe latter being more particularly di- ed its power, as to have rendered it rected to this object, its arrangements doubtful to many if it is not an enfor the purpose are more perfect. tirely new invention. The instrument is reduced into a Since writing the above, we have much more commodious form ;-the observed the following additional noglasses are more skilfully combined, tices in the Literary Gazette. “ In and various other contrivances are in- the system of optics of C. L. D. troduced to heighten the effect; but, (Dangel,) Altona, 1657, in 4to, as we cannot perceive in any of these the following passage is quoted from the operation of a new principle, we the fifth volume of the Theatre of cannot help viewing them but as im- Nature : provements on the original design. The instrument is brought nearer to “ If some lines and figures are drawn perfection. By the removal of certain upon a paper, and this held against two impediments to the full developement mirrors, the surfaces of which are placed at of its powers, the machine now works an angle, this affords an opportunity to find to admiration; but it is still the same
the prettiest borders, foliage, and the like,
for the use of workers in ornamental stucco, machine--impelled by the same mov
gardeners, and embroiderers.” ing power,-and that power applied by the same species of mechanism.
The Nuremberg Commercial JourSuch are the principal contrivances nal contains a letter from J. B. Bauer, which have been thought to resemble instrument-maker of that city, stating the Kaleidoscope. But we are far that he has manufactured an instrufrom imagining, that the distinguish- ment like the Kaleidoscope for twenty ed inventor of this instrument has years past, and that he took the idea taken the idea from any of them. On from a description in Lampert's learnthe contrary, we have no doubt, (ac- ed German Correspondence, publishcording to a statement which has ed by M. Bernouilli
. In Letter 42, been published, apparently from au- Vol. III. Lampert writes from Berthority,) that, having accidentally no- lin, September 2, 1769, to M. Branticed the repetition of objects between der, at Augsburg, two glasses, with the regularity of the figure thus produced, and quite una “ Soon after I sent away my last, I had ware that the circumstance had been a mirror cut with four pyramidal faces, to already observed, he was led to con
shew the effect to amateurs. These pyrasider how the glasses might be most mids may be considered as an optical aadvantageously combined, and hence musement; whatever is laid at the narrow produced the very superior instru- opening, becomes multiplied in a symmement above described. And though
trical manner, according to the surface of
the sphere: a three-sided pyramid diit is clear, as every inventor must oc
vides the sphere like an Icosaedron ; a casionally expect, that he has been an
five-sided one forms a Dodecaedron, &c. ticipated in his design,—though the You may represent with it a chess-board, history of the Kaleidoscope must in- a spherical lattice, a ball regularly illumi. clude the first notice of the principle nated in various ways."
ON THE GENIUS OF THOMAS CAMP- sociations,—and the green woods, and BELL.
the blue waters-nay, the eternal
mountains themselves, will 'seem to 6- Thy power
have lost a portion of their beauty right raise Musæus from his bower,
and their majesty. Or bid the soul of Orpheus sing
Mankind have also altered in our Such notes as warbled to the string, Drew iron tears down Pluto's cheek,
eyes and estimation, since it was the And made hell grant what love did seek."
warmest wish of our hearts to escape MILTON. the trammels of tuition, and be our
selves among the actors in the great Amid the toils and turmoils of the drama of the world. We knew not world, and the disagreeable vicissi- what we asked, nor what we wished: tudes of this passing state, the intel- too soon the period, “ like a horseman lectual eye often pauses, and reverts a girt for travel,” comes. The liberty * longing, lingering” glance to the we obtain is a thousand times worse summer, and the sunshine of earthly than the thraldom that bounds us; existence, with somewhat of a pen- and, like the children of Israel, when sive enjoyment, and somewhat of the they were pining with famine in the nauseated satiety of Solomon, when, wildlerness, we think not of the bonds after pursuing and obtaining every we have escaped, but sigh and pine thing that mortals imagine productive for the pleasant places, and fertile of happiness, he declared, that all was provinces of Egypt. The frost-work vanity and vexation of spirit. The palaces of the imagination, that dazdangers and disquietudes, the pains zled in the distance, begin to melt as and perils of our early days, are viewed we approach, and the visions of glory with the feelings of the mariner, that surrounded us, “ o’erhanging who, after encountering the horrors earth, and hiding heaven,”, dissolve. of shipwreck, finds himself cast upon like the fleecy clouds in the atmoa desart shore ; while the purity of the sphere. Still we hurry on in the prirheart, and the warmth of the affec- suit of pleasure, and follow the steps tions, and all the thousand witcheries of the syren wherever she beckons us, of childhood," like orient pearls at till we, at length, begin to grow weary random strung,” gleam upon the at her elusions, and listless to her thought in blessed succession,-seen calls, and unsatisfied with ourselves : but unapproachable,"clear, but oh! we behold the finger of truth poiniing how cold !” like the stars in the win- to the inanity and worthlessness of try hemisphere, mocking us with the
our engagements; we turn, at length, semblance of light and heat, yet only in satiety, and think of returning serving to render the encompassing home ; but lo! the gates of the gardarkness more visible. So evidently den of Eden are shut against us,do the requisites for happiness exist are appalled at the flaming sword of in our own bosoms, --so much are the the guardian angel on the right hand, scenes coloured by the eye that views and on the left: the enjoyments of them, that all animated nature seems our earlier days are gone for ever ; to have altered like ourselves—to have and the remembrance of them is to been developing its beauties in our ourselves, as to all others, like childhood, attaining its glory in our tale that is told.” youth, and tending towards declen These observations may appear at sion in our maturer years. The first to have very little to do with the spring is not so green and gladsome; subject we have in hand ; but, the nor the summer so warm and glori- images presented to the eye of the ous; nor the autumn so luxuriant and mind, as well as those to the natural roellow: winter, alone, is the self- eye, in the earlier stages of our existsame season of bleakness, chilliness, ence, make impressions, and kindie and tempest; though the fairy tales, associations no less glorious and enand noisy gambols of its evening chanting. The scenes that we have hearth,
are also blotted out from the haunted, the friends whom we have diurnal portrait. Let us revisit the loved, the music that we have heard, landscapes frequented by us of yore, the books that we have read, every fair in reality, but rendered fairer, thing, in a word, connected with these and far more delightful, by a tlou- early remembrances, is of itself a key, saud sweet thoughts, and darling as -a talisman, which, whenever touch.
ed, conjures up the forms of the past, floating aloft in the azure sky. The and awakens a thousand beloved as- other casts around him a wild, hursociations,-the one introducing the ried, and impassioned glance, now other, and these following those, in darting from one object to another, countless succession, like the shadows and now fixing on a third, to deliof the clouds chasing each other over neate all its blots, and half its beauthe meadows of autumn.
ties. Campbell is endowed with more Now the writings of Thomas Camp- self-possession ; he is never hurried bell are intimately interwoven with away by his passions, or by his prejuthese associations in our bosoms. We dices; he gazes and feels like a poet, have not forgot--we shall never for- but he thinks like a man. The mind get, the impressions which they then of Wordsworth may be likened to an made upon us, and which they are Icelandic region, where the outlines calculated to make on the youthful are all bold, abrupt, barren, and mamind of every one who is possessed of jestic,-a large surface, and scanty any taste or sensibility. We see " a population. The mind of Byron to mass of many images” crowding like an Asiatic,-olive groves, and magnithe ocean waves upon us; we hear the ficent ruins of towns and temples, music of Harmonia's daughters, “the luxuriant meads, and murmuring wamingling tones of horn, and harp, and ters, o'ercanopied by a burning sky, shell ;” and feel at the sight, and the partly clear and partly clouded. That sound, the enthusiasm of our souls of Campbell to an Italian,-where the awaken, and the purest, noblest, and tints of the earth, and the hues of most ardent of our emotions called heaven, are all mild and mellowed ; into play, and kindling, and stirring, where the riches of the one are not and blazing within us, in all their too great to precludle the necessity of priile, and with all their energy. industry, nor the other too warm and
To what this forcible impression, sultry to impede its efforts; and which the poetry of Campbell is sus- where the traveller lingers in susceptible of producing on the youth- pense, whether more to admire the ful mind, owes its origin, it is not very pride of art, or the inagnificence easy to determine. We must look for of nature. Without metaphor, Campit, either in the splendour and deli- bell's excellency consists in the vicious harmony of the style, or in the gour, yet direct equipoise of all the purity, freshness, and majesty of the intellectual faculties; or, to use other thought, or in the aptness and en- words, in the delicacy of his taste. ticing nature of the subjects; most Within the range of his writings, it probably it originates from the com would be difficult to point out ten bination of the whole, as the Corin- common-place ideas, or as many lines, thian brass is said to have been form- that could be improved by alteration, ed by commixture of various metallic either with respect to sense or sound. substances. His poetry possesses The paucity of his compositions must marks of all the requisites that unite not, therefore, be attributed to the poin forming a master of the art; yet, verty of his invention, but to the fasin each particular faculty, he has e tidiousness of his taste. We are well quals, perhaps superiors, among his aware, that ninety-nine out of a hunliving brethren of the lyre. He has dred of his readers would be more not the irresistible power and pathos easily satisfied than himself; and we of Byron; nor the shadowy, unman- think we could almost hazard the asageable, and stupendous imagination sertion, that he has blotted as many of Wordsworth ; but his mind, as a verses as would have raised another whole, is better regulated than either. to no mean station in the republic of The one leans down, and fixes upon letters. Campbell has no dross. Sift his landscape, till he has gazed it the writings of our poets from their over and over, and filled up its chasms impurities, and few of them have with fancy,—till he loses the power of writter more than he has done, distinguishing the distance, and re In an age which is remarkable for lations, and qualities, and compra. the diffuseness of its literature, and tive significance of objects,-till the not less remarkable for the eager thirst daisy, at his feet, is magnified to the with which that literature is devoursunflower, and the bee, in the cup of ed, his is one of the very few great the daffodil, is larger than the swallow, nanes which neither the spur of inte