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versification, and the fearless freedom rit consists in the happy turn of the with which he rambles through the expression, and the beauty of the verendless mazes of his enchanting tale ? sification, would lose not a little even Who ever heard any one talk with by the finest translation into our enthusiasm of Ariosto, who owed all language: yet it must be regretted his knowledge of him to Mr Hoole? that they should be altogether hidden Yet he is the poet of all others the from all but the readers of Italian, and, most likely to call forth feelings of were a translation of some of the finrapture and delight in his readers. est of these to be executed by any one We feel as if transported by him into equal to the task, however inferior the a world of a fairer and more genial impression might be to that conveyed aspect than our own, whose sun no by the originals, his labour most uncloud obscures, and whose sky no doubtedly would not be in vain. tempest darkens. We look upon man The following imperfect translain the higher and nobler aspects of tions, which shall be continued from his being. All his selfishness, and all time to time, were written solely for the grovelling passions of his nature, the author's own gratification, while vanish fronı before us. We are perusing the works of the Italian transported back to those days of no- poets ; yet even from them (imperble deeds and lofty feelings, when the tect and unequal as he feels them to cold forms of indifference had not yet be) he thinks some readers may form sullied the simplicity of the human an idea of the merit of the originals. character, and the testering sores of If they shall contribute to induce any distrust did not rankle in the huinan

one to a perusal of the works of these heart; when every selfish feeling gave writers in their own language, or to a way before the powerful impulse of performance of the task of making a generosity, and the meed of conquest more complete and choice selection was the laurel-leaf, or the fair one's than any we have hitherto had, from smile. And, instead of all this, are these authors, which neither his powwe to remain contented with a tame ers nor his pursuits allow him to atand slavish version, without one spark tempt, he shall deem his labours amof the glowing spirit of the original, ply compensated. by one whose only merit was perse

Introductory Sonnet. verance in completing what his presumption urged him to commence? Soothed by the stillness of some cool retreat, Is there no kindred spirit-no

While underneath the spreading beech riosto of the North”—who will un

tree's shade,

My limbs in listless indolence were laid, dertake the task of laying open these

The riv'let softly murmuring by my brilliant“ regions of romance" to the feet ; delighted gaze of every true lover of Oft, as my spirit in delusion sweet, poetry?

Thro' fair Italia's magic mazes strayed, But it is not alone in the greater I've wept to think how cruel fortune efforts of the Italian muse that those swayed, treasures of poetry are to be found Those mighty minds for earthly shocks which have ever afforded the highest enjoyment to all those who have read Then have I sought to wake the lofty lyre them aright. Many of the sonnets of

That Tasso struck, or Petrarch's softer Petrarch, and of the smaller poems of

tone, Tasso and Metastasio, are distinguish

Whose harp would sound the notes of

love alone; ed by a depth and purity of feeling, And still my soul, as awed I touched the a richness and variety of imagery, and wire, a sweetness and melody of versifica

Felt all their grief and all their am'rous tion, which have never been surpas fire, sed, and which abundantly compen And as I sung their wocs, I soothed my sate for the paltry conceits, and metaphysical refinements, which, owing to the bad taste of the age in which Tasso-Rime Amorose_S. CXIII. they lived, we find not unfrequently interwoven with their finest senti

“ Aura, ch'or quinci scherzi, or quindi voments, and most brilliant images.

It is obvious that these poems, of Ob! Air, whose gentle breeze thus sportive which a considerable part of the me fies,

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urmeet :

own.

le,” &c.

fly;

woe

'Mid the gay myrtle's tender verdant Ye verdant boughs! and groves, whose hair,

loveliness And waving soft the dewy flowerets fair, Oft wins her presence !-shady green Steals their sweet odour with its am'rous

recess! sighs,

Whose leafy trees the rays of morning If in thy bosom pity e'er arise,

greet; Leave these gay scenes thou soft volup. And thou fair stream ! whose crystal watuous Air,

ters lave And wing thee to the streamlet's margin, Her radiant face and fair eyes that imwhere

part Beneath my angel's feet the floweret dies : A brighter lustre to thy calm clear wave; In thy soft bosom waft these am'rous woes, How much I envy you these joys! Ye

And all the anguish that my spirit tires, know
To where my thoughts do still unceasing The agonising pangs that tear my heart,

For every rock resoundeth with my woe. Thence may'st thou steal, more sweet than

dew-bent rose, The heavenly odours on her lip that lie,

Metastasio-S. VIII. And bear them back to feed my warm

“ Leggiadia rosa, le cui pure foglie," &c. desires.

O lovely rose, whose dewy leaflets blowing

Are tended by the genial breath of morn,

And o'er whose breast the early breezes Petrarch-B. 1. S. XXV.

borne “Quanto più m'avvicino al giorno estre Have left in crimson hue thy garments mo," &c.

glowing ; As now approaching comes the dreary The same kind hand that watches now thy night

growing The night that brings an end to mortal Shall lead thee soon a purer scene t'a

dorn, More swiftly seems the tide of time to Where freed for ever from the galling flow,

thorn, And e'en sweet hope prepares to take Thou'lt bloom-alone thy fairer features her flight:

shewing, Not long my thought, alas! this last de- Secure in loveliness that never dies : light

Nor snow, nor hail, nor warring winds To talk of love with the shall life be

are there,

Nor changing seasons, nor inclement For soon thrown off, like mass of Alpine

skies,

But blooming safe beneath a kinder care, At summer's heat, shall fall this earthly

Thou shalt in calm serenity arise weight:

For ever fragrant, and for ever fair. Soon shall we both have peace, for then no

H. False hope shall woo me with her syren

TIE KALEIDOSCOPE. smile, Th' alternate tears and smiles that mock We shall here endeavour to explain ed before

the principle and construction of this Shall ne'er perplex my grief-worn heart amusing instrument, which still conagain,

tinues to attract the public attention. And we shall see how false desires be. It is a curious circumstance con

guile Man's mortal life-how oft he sighs in the most irregular figure becomes

cerning our notions of beauty, that vain.

pleasing to the eye, when we join to it

its exact copy with the position rePetrarcli-B. I. S. CXXIX.

versed. Take, for example, any fi- Lieti fiori, e felici e ben nate herbe,” &c. gure at random, such as fig. 1, and

it will he transformed in this manYe happy herbs and plants, and flowerets

ner into fig. 3. In the same mansweet, That Laura wand'ring oft is wont to

ner, one still more irregular, as fig. 2, press!

is converted into fig. 4. + Ye shady bowers that her sweet accents bless!

This article was written for our last Ye plains imprinted by her snowy feet ! Number. but was unavoidably delayed. Ye violets pale that glow with am'rous + The regular geometrical figures, such heat!

as the square, the polygons, or the circles

stow;

snow

more

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The singular beauty of the pro The continual a ddition of any of the ductions of nature seems to depend compound figures (fig. 3 or 4) thus on this union of objects, similar in formed to itself, produces an effect still figure, but contrasted in position, more pleasing. If this addition be and the same principle regulates the made in a straight line,-if the figure arrangement of figures in all kinds of be continually copied without any ornamental designs. The columns of change of its position, a straight bora gateway, for example, whatever be der is formed, varying in beauty, with their shape or dimensions, are never the aspect of the original ; and, if this placed in a greater number, or a dif- border be again repeated in the same ferent arrangement, on the one side of manner, in the direction of its breadth, it than on the other. The arches are a regular pattern is produced, which never formed into circles over one may be extended to any size. Thus the half of the bridge, and into ellipses primitive fig. 5 being reversed, proover the other ; and though the archie duces the compound fig. 6, from tect varies infinitely, according to his which, by repetition, arises the bore taste, the front of an ornamental build- der fig. 7. ing, yet he generally studies to make But when, at each of the repeti. the one half of it a reflected image of tions of the compound figure, we also the other.

vary somewhat its position, a new

principle of harmony is introduced. the extreme case of the polygon, are com

That similarity of figure and contrast

of position, which gives to the single posed of repeated isosecles triangles ; each of which is formed from an irregular figure repetition of the original all its beau(a right angled triangle) joined to its re

ty, is now applied to the suceessive reverse, and in general any complete figure petitions of the compound figure itwhatever, may be always decomposed (this, self ; instead of a straight we have indeed, seems the circumstance on which its a curved border; and as the effect of completeness depends) into two or more this arrangement is the greatest of all equal and similar figures.

wben these repetitions are made to

VOL. III.

converge to a point,—when they are still better coated with blacking. arranged round a centre, and con Draw on a sheet of paper any number tinued till the whole circle is filled of figures or dashes at random, (it by the meeting of the extremes,- will increase the effect if they be of when the greatest possible number of different colours,) and setting the them are thus brought within the glass on its end perpendicularly over smallest possible compass,—their fi- the paper, apply this lower end sucgures thus most clearly identified, and cessively to the different figures, and their positions most highly contrasted; to the upper end the eye, moving also this combination is hence the most

over the figures, and always at a small beautiful of the kind. Thus the fun- distance froin the glass the finger or damental fig. 8 is by repetition and other object to contine the field of reversion transferred into hig. 9, which view, then at every remove of the repeated round the circle, forms fig. glass, as the different figures over 10. In the same manner, from one which it passes are always seen each still more irregular, fig. 11, arises joined to its reverse, a constant sucfirst fig. 12, and secondly the beauti- cession of pleasing objects is kept up; ful design fig. 13; and, lastly, from and even with this single glass, it fig. 14 we have fig. 15.

is really curious sometimes to observe The Kaleidoscope, then, from which the variety of regular images that are we may seem to have digressed, is an produced. instrument contrived to produce the Place now another glass of the above arrangements with expedition. same size as the former, at a disWhat could else only be done by tance from it less than one-half the the slow and laborious process of mi- breadth of the glasses, and parallel to nute copying, this curious little ma. it, and looking down between the two chine performs, as it were, by a coup glasses on the paper, the same succesde main ; and it is this instant pro- sion of regular figures will be observduction of what seems the result of ed as before, but each of these now the greatest labour, together with repeated a number of times, so as to the real beauty of the images them- form, instead of single images, a sucselves perpetually varying, as if by the cession of regular straight borders. operation of magic, which renders the This effect is most striking when the Kaleidoscope an object of such wonder glasses are brought pretty close to to those who are ignorant of its na- each other, as the reflections being in ture, and of amusement even to those that case more oblique, the objects who can explain the mystery. are more frequently repeated, † and as

The well known property of a mir- the direct and reverse images being ror or polished surface, by which it brought within a smaller compass, are reflects a reversed image of every ob- more highly contrasted. # Instead ject presented to it, is peculiarly adapted for producing that arrangement of figures which we bave de- and consequently the distinctness of the scribed ; and this, accordingly, is the image, always increasing with the obliquigreat principle on which the Kalei- ty. doscope is constructed. * Take, for

* To prevent any double reflection example, a piece of mirror glass con

which always takes place with a silvered

glass. siderably longer than it is broad,

+ It is upon this principle that a buildand either silvered on the back, or ing must be viewed at some distance, to

observe the full effect of its architecture. We may mention, as illustrating If we go nearer, cannot see it at what has been said, a common method of once, and, therefore, cannot so easily comcutting out figures in paper ;-the paper is pare its extreme points, and if we'recede first doubled or folded a number of times, we lose sight altogether of the subordinate the folds being either all one way, or in- figures. clined to each other round a centre, and # If the reflections were perfect, the reany figure being cut out at random through petitions of the compound figure would exall the folds at once, the paper is opened tend indefinitely on the right and left, but and exhibits a pattern or succession of pat- at each reflection a certain part of the light terns of the greatest regularity.

is lost, and at the next reflection the same + In order that the object may be re part of the remainder ; it falls also conflected from the glass to the eye as obliquiy tinually less and less obliquely on the as possible ; the quantity of light reflected, glasses as the reflections are repeated. From,

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of keeping the plates parallel, bring tal, one end of which is left open for the two adjacent edges closer to each the objects, and the other contracted other on one side than on the other, to a small hole for the eye. The coand the figures will now be repeated lours also are now thrown at random each in the circumference of a circle ; on a piece of glass or other transpainstead of straight we shall now have a rent substance, which is then held succession of circular borders.

close to the open end of the glasses, But those arrangements which we and moved backwards and forwards have described merely to illustrate the with the one hand, while the tube is principle, are all of them far inferior held up to the light with the other. to the following: Bring the edges What answers still better, a very short of the glasses closer and closer to tube being fitted to the object end of each other, and the repetition of the principal tube, so as to turn easily the figures will be observed gra- round upon it, plates of clear or (to dually more and more to converge ; soften down the edges of the objects) being brought gradually within à roughly ground glass are fitted into smaller and smaller compass, more this tube ; and bits of coloured glass of them will be visible, on account (or any objects at pleasure), being inof the rays falling more obliquely closed between the plates, the tube is on the glasses, while the powers turned round with the hand, and the of similarity and contrast operate at constant motion of the pieces of glass the same time with augmented effect; forms a new and striking variety to and when the edges of the reflectors the figures that are produced. This are at last made to coincide, all these last combination, the reflectors being circumstances are carried to their polished, and their edges fitted to each highest pitch, the extremes meet, and other in the nicest manner, may be we have a complete pattern, such as considered as the most perfect which has already been described. This has yet been constructed. * then is the common form of the Ka Such, then, is the instrument which leidoscope. It consists of two plain has of late attracted so much notice; reflectors of glass or metal, (and they and whatever difference of opinion should be at least eight or ten times may exist as to its ustfulness or orilonger than broad, and also about ginality, it is agreed, on all hands, to twice as broad at the object as at be a very pretty contrivance,-a beauthe eye end,) placed together by their tiful application of a scientific prinlonger edges, and either fixed at a cer- ciple. Of its utility we confess we have tain angle, (which must be an even not been able to enter entirely into the and an aliquot part of the circumfer- views which many have held out. As it ence,) or made to open and shut at creates no new figure, but only repeats pleasure, like the leaves of a book. and reverses the images of those which The smaller the angle of the glasses, are presented to it, it cannot, we apthe effect is always the more beauti- prehend, facilitate the copying of the ful; but when we bring them very figures thus combined, which can close together, the extreme images be- always be more easily transferred from gin (from the loss of light in so many the fundamental figure itself, of which reflections) to disappear, and thus to the pattern is only a series of repetirender thé figure incomplete ; it is tions. It can only be of service to easy, however, by a little adjustment, the designer, therefore, to shew him to hit the angle which produces the at once, without the labour of repeatbest effect.

ed copying, the combined effect of But in this, as in all other optical any fundamental figure,—to produce instruments, any external light diminishes always the full effect of the

* Various other forms of the Kaleido. arrangement; in order to exclude,

scope

have been described with three or therefore, all light but what comes

more glasses, but as the principle is still from the objects observed, the glasses the same, we have contined ourselves to are fixed into a tube of wood or mer

that which is most generally used. A convex glass has also been applied to intro.

duce distant nöjects, but as there is no these causes, we can seldom with glass see want of objects to place quite in contact more than eight or ten repetitions on each with the reflectors, we need not describe side.

this contrivance more particularly.

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