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allusion, details, metaphors, metonymies, antitheses, strange things, and strange names, shows us the worth of specific words in descriptive writing.
Page 156, line 6. Stamp Act. All good Americans should read Burke's American Taxation Speech and his Conciliation with the Colonies. Page 161, line 5.
sworn of the privy council. Become a member of the Sovereign's council, which is composed of the great officers of the kingdom, the royal princes, the great judges, and other persons of rank and position.
Page 167, line 4. First Lord of the Treasury, Chancellor. Titles of members of the English Cabinet, or Ministry.
Line 19. prorogation. Parliament's annual sessions are usually from February to August. The prorogation is the act of adjournment for the annual recess.
Page 171, line 25. High Court of Parliament. The House of Commons must impeach, and the House of Lords must try the case.
Page 172, line 6. hall of William Rufus. This hall still stands, and is a pari of the new House of Parliament. There is an illustrated article on this hall in Harper's Monthly for November, 1884,
Page 173, line 19. Siddons. Mrs. Siddons, the great actress, She was at the height of her fame at this time. Lady Macbeth was one of her favorite characters. Reynolds painted her as the Tragic Muse. Gainsborough's painting of her is in the National Gallery
Line 22. historian. Edward Gibbon. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
Page 174, line 2. greatest painter and greatest scholar. Sir Joshua Reynolds and Samuel Parr.
Line 14. plighted his faith. The Prince of Wales, afterwards George IV., was privately married to Mrs. Fitzherbert. It was contrary to law because she was a Roman Catholic. Royal Marriage Act, 1772.
Line 15. Saint Cecilia. Saint Cecilia is the special patron saint of music and musicians. Raphael and many later artists have given their conception of her. Dryden's Ode to Saint Cecilia and his ode Alexander's Feast were written for musical feasts in her honor. The legend of her martyrdom is well told in an illustrated article of Harper's Monthly, November, 1880. The allusion here is to Mrs. Richard Brinsley Sheridan, whom Reynolds painted in the character of Saint Cecilia.
Line 20. Mrs. Montague, who often entertained the members of the Literary Club — Burke, Goldsmith, Johnson, Reynolds, Garrick, etc.
Line 23. Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire. The story runs that she bought at least one vote for Fox in his contest for Parliament in 1784 by a kiss. Her portraits by Gainsborough and Reynolds are very lovely.
Page 175, line 17. Mens aequa in arduis. A mind unmoved amid difficulties. In connection with this Macaulay says,
" He was a man for whom nature had done much of what the stoic philosophy pretended, and only pretended, to do for its disciples. “Mens aequa in arduis' is his inscription under
the picture in the Government House at Calcutta, and never was there a more appropriate motto."
Page 176, line 13. bag, bag-wig. A wig with a bag to hold the back hair, fashionable in the eighteenth century.
Line 25. Fox. Charles James Fox, 1749–1806, statesman and orator. Burke called him “ the greatest debater the world ever
His is a very interesting biography. Sheridan, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, dramatist, orator, and statesman, 1751-1816, a brilliant speaker, as Macaulay shows. He is the author of the plays The Rivals and School for Scandal.
Page 178, line 2. morning sun. The sittings of Parliament are opened at 4 P. m., and often last till “ morning sun.
Line 4. Charles Earl Grey. Earl Grey, a great Whig leader in Macaulay's own days in Parliament. Prime Minister when the Reform Bill of 1832 was carried.
Page 179, line 9. taste and sensibility. See previous note for the novels that fostered this “sensibility.”
Page 185, line 23. unpopular. Burke did not believe in the French Revolution. He said, “Whenever a separation is made between liberty and justice, neither is safe." But he stood alone in Parliament. The Whigs followed Fox, and the Tories followed Pitt, in their approval of the Revolution. Later the country understood Burke's view, but it was too late to save the friendships of the great Whigs. Macaulay describes their attitudes toward each other in a subsequent paragraph.
Page 192, line 19. Anthony Pasquin, pasquinade, lampoon. Macaulay said of him, “The wretched Tony Pasquin, who first defended and then libelled him [Hastings]."
Page 195, 1. 3. Pitt retired. Pitt, the younger, resigned the premiership because the king refused his consent to the removal of the remaining civil disabilities of the Roman Catholics.
Line 8. Addington. Prime Minister after Pitt resigned.
Line 9. resigning the Treasury, resigning the office of Prime Minister. The people regarded Mr. Addington as a weak and narrow-minded man.
INDEX TO NOTES
A government de facto, 218. Chancellor, 221.
Charles Earl Grey, 223.
Clive, 205, 206, 208, 209, lv.
Doest thou well, 212.
Double government, 208.
Downing Street, 219.
Dupleix, 205, lv.
Edmund Burke, 220, 223.
Fall of the house of Tamerlane,
Fling his guns into the tanks, 217.