serrable beside the variety of lamps, and they buried Socrates, and regarding onely frequent draughts of the holy candlestick. his immortal part, was indifferent to be In anthentick draughts of. Anthony and burnt or buried. From such consideraJerome, we meet with thigh-bones and tions Diogenes' inight contemn sepulture. deaths heads ; but the cemiterial cels of And being satisfied that the soul could ancient Christians and martyrs, were not perish, grow careless of corporal enfilled with draughts of Scripture stories ; terrment. The Stoicks who thought the not declining the flourishes of cyprésse, souls of wise men had their habitation palms, and olive; and the mystical figures about the Moon, might make slight of peacocks, doves, and cocks. But ite account of subterraneous deposition ; rately affecting the pourtraits of Enoch, whereas the Pythagorians and transcorLasarus, Jmus, and the vision of Esechiel, porating philosophers, who were to be as hopeful draughts, and hinting imagery often buried, held great care of their enof the resurrection; which is the life of terrment. And the Platonicks rejected the grave, and sweetens our habitations not a due care of the grave, though they in the land of Moles and Pismires." put their ashes to unreasonable expectapp. 14, 15.

tions, in their tedious term of return and In the fourth chapter we find long set revolution.

Men have lost their reason in nomany very ingenious and charitable apologies for ceremonies, stones and clouts make martyrs; and

thing so much as their religion, wherein which appear unmeaning or ab- since the religion of one seems madness surd. He then begins this chap- unto another, to afford an account or ter.

rational of old rites, requires no rigid “ Christians have handsomely glossed reader; that they kindled the pyre the deformity of death, by careful consi- aversly, or turning their face from it, deration of the body, and civil rites which

was an handsome symbole of unwilling take off brutal terminations. And though bones with wine and milk, that the mo

ministration; that they washed their they conceived all reparable by a resurrection, cast not off all care of enterr

ther wrapt them in linnen, and dryed ment. And since the ashes of sacrifices

them in her bosome, the first fostering burnt upon the altar of God, were care

part, and place of their nourishment; fully carried out by the priests, and de

that they opened their eyes towards posed in a clean field; since they acknow- heaven, before they kindled the fire, as ledged their bodies to be the lodging of the place of their hopes or original, were Christ, and temples of the Holy Ghost,

no improper ceremonies. Their last they devoived not all upon the sufficiency valediction thrice uttered by the attendof soul existence; and therefore with ants, was also very solemn and somewhat long scrvices and full solemnities con

answered by Christians, who thought it cluded their last exequies, wherein to all

too little, if they threw not the earth distinctions the Greek devotion seems

thrice upon the enterred body. That in inost pathetically ceremonious.

strewing their tombs, the Romunes affected ." Christian 'invention hath chiefly the rose, the Greeks Amaranthus and driven at rites, which speak hopes of myrtle; that the fuueral pyre consisted another life, and hints of a resurrection.

of sweet fuel, cypress, firre, larix, yewe, And if the ancient Gentiles held not the and trees perpetually verdant, lay silent immortality of their better part, and expressions of their surviving hopes : some subsistence after death; in several

wherein Christians which deck their rites, customes, actions, and expressions, elegant embleme. For that tree seeming

coffins with bays, have found a more they contradicted their own opinions wherein Democritus went high, even to the dead, will restore itself from the root, thought of a resurrection, as scoffingly their verdure again ; which, if we mis

and its dry and exuccous leaves resume recorded by Pliny. What can be more express than the expression of Phocyllides ? take not, we have also observed in furze. Or who would expect from Lucretius a

Whether the planting of yewe in churchsentence of Ecclesiastes ? Before Pluto yards, hold not its original from ancient could speak, the soul had wings in Homer, funeral rites, or as an embleme of resurwhich fell not, but flew out of the body rection from its perpetual verdure, may into the mansions of the dead ; who also

also admit conjecture."--pp. 19, 20. observed that handsome distinction of Demas and Soma, for the body conjoyned

But after quickening all the to the soul and body separated froin it. relics of the tomb, and tracing the Lucian spoke much truth in jest, when origin of all the forms with which he said, that part of Hercules which pro- mortal remains have been comceeded from Alchmena perished, that from

mitted to it, in a voice that Jupiter remained immortal. Thus Socrates was content that his friends should

sounds more like that of a familiar. bury his body, so they would not think spirit, than a living man, he rises

CONG. Mag. No. 62.

into higher themes, and shows a maximes, lie so deep as he is placed : at sensibility to the more solemn and least so low as not to rise against Chris

tians, who beleeving or knowing that important relations of death and

truth, have lastingly denied it in their the grave, and though there is practise and conversation, were a quæry little that is strictly theological in too sad to insist on. the work, there are many passages

“ But all or most apprehensions rested of a highly sentimental cast, and

in opinions of some future being, which

ignorantly or coldly beleeved, beget those some that are truly beautiful and perverted conceptions, ceremonies, saysublime. The following is the ings, which Christians pity or laugh at. conclusion of the fourth chapter. Happy are they, which live not in that and is worthy of the careful peru- casalivante

disadvantage of time, when men could

e careiui perum say little for futurity, but from reason. sal of all our readers, in an age Whereby the noblest mindes fell often when infidelity is uttering its im- upon doubtful deaths, and melancholly pious sarcasms against the belief dissolutions ; with these hopes Socrates of a future state,

warmed his doubtful spirits, against that

cold, potion, and Caio before he durst « Were the happinesse of the next give the fatal stroak, spent part of the world as closely apprehended as the feli- night in reading the immortality of Plato, cities of this, it were a martyrdome to thereby confirming his wavering hand live ; and unto such as consider none unto the animosity of that attempt. hereafter, it must be more than death to " It is the heaviest stone that melandie, which makes us amazed at those choly can throw at a man, to tell him he audacities, that durst be nothing, and is at the end of his nature; or that there return into their chaos again. Certainly is no further state to come, unto which such spirits as could contemn death, this seemes progressional, and otherwise when they expected no better being after, made in vain; without this accomplishwould have scorned to live had they ment, the natural expectation and desire known any. And, therefore, we applaud of such a state, were but a fallacy in nanot the judgment of Machiavel, that ture, unsatisfied considerators would Christranity makes men cowards, or that quarrel the justice of their constitutions, with the confidence of but half dying, the and rest content, that Adam had fallen dispised vertues of patience and huzility, lower, whereby by knowing no other have abased the spirits of men, which original, and deeper ignorance of themPagan principles exalted, but rather regu- selves, they might have enjoyed the haplated the wildnesse of audacities, in the pinesse of inferiour creatures, who in atteinpts, grounds, and eternal sequels of tranquillity possess their constitutions, death, wherein men of the boldest spirits as having not the apprehension to deplore are often prodigiously temerarious. "Nor their own natures. And being framed can we extenuate valour of ancient mar- below the circumference of these hopes, tyrs, who contemned death in the un- or coguition of better being, the wisdom comfortable scene of their lives, and in of God hath necessitated their contenttheir decrepit martyrdomes did probably ment: but the superiour ingredient and lose not many moneths of their dayes, obscured part of ourselves, whereunto all or parted with life when it was scarce present felicities afford no resting conworth the living. For (beside that long tentment, will be able at last to tell us time past holds no consideration unto à we are more then our present selves ; slender time to come) they had no small and evacuate such hopes in the fruidisadvantage from the constitution of tion of their own accomplishments." old age, which naturally makes men pp. 23, 24. fearful ; and complexionally superan- We sum up all with consideranuated from the bold and couragious thoughts of youth and fervent years

tions upon the vanity of those But the contempt of death from corporal struggles for immortality, which animosity, promoteth not our felicity. men have made through monuThey may set in the Orchestra, and ments, inscriptions, obelisks, pyranoblest seats of heaven, who have held up shaking hands in the fire, and hu

mids, and the like. The following manely contended for glory.

is one of his most characteristic, “ Mean while Epicurus lies deep in and at the same time one of his Dante's hell, wherin we meet with tombs most splendidand original passages. enclosing souls which denied their immortalities. But whether the virtuous

“ Had they made as good provision heathen, who lived better then he spake, for their names, as they have done for or erring in the principles of himself, yet their reliques, they had not so grosly lived above philosophers of more specious erred in the art of perpetuation. But to

subsist in bones, and be but Pyramidally that cannot destroy itself; and the highextant, is a fallacy in duration. Vain est strain of omnipotency to be so powerashes, which in the oblivion of names, fully constituted, as not to suffer even persons, times, and sexes, have found from the power of itself. But the suffi unto themselves, a fruitlesse continu ciency of Christian immortality frustrates ation, and onely arise unto late posterity, all earthly glory, and the quality of either as emblemes of mortal vanities; anti state after death makes a folly of posthu. dotes against pride, vain glory, and mad mous memory. God, who can onely ding vices. Pagan vain glories, which destroy our souls, and hath assured our thought the world might last for ever, resurrection, either of our bodies or had encouragement for ambition, and names hath directly promised no dura. finding on Atropos unto the immortality of tion. Wherein there is so much of their names, were never dampt with the chance, that the boldest expectants have necessity of oblivion. Even old ambi- found unhappy frustration, and to hold tions had the advantage of ours, in the long subsistence, sccms but a scape in attempts of their vain glories, who act- oblivion. But man is a noble animal, ing early, and before the probable meri- splendid in ashes, and pompous in the dian of time, have by this time found grave, solemnizing nativities and deaths great accomplishment of their designes, with equal lustre, nor omitting cerewhereby the ancient heroes have already monies of bravery, in the infamy of his outlasted their monuments, and mecha- nature."--pp. 28, 29. nical preservations. But in this latter scene of time we cannot expect such The following brief citation mummies unto our memories, when am- will not unaptly conclude the sebition may fear the prophecy of Elias, ries we have given, and sum up and Charles the fift can never hope to live within two Methusela's of Hector.

e the interesting subject to which “And therefore restlesse inquietude they all relate. for the diuturnity of our memories unto

“ Five languages secured not the

i pi present considerations, seemes a vanity almost out of date. and superannuated

epitaph of Gordianus ; the man of God peece of folly. We cannot hope to live

lives longer without a tomb then any by so long in our names, as some have done

one, invisibly interred by angels, and in their persons, one face of Janus holds ady

adjudged to obscurity, thongh not withno proportion to the other. "Tis to late

out some marks directing humane disco

Enoch and Elias without either to be ambitious. The great mutations very.

tomb or burial, in an anomalous state of the world are acted, or time may be too short for our designes. To extend

od of being, are the great examples of per our memories by monuments, whose

i petuity, in their long and living memory,

in strict account being still on this side death we dayly pray for, and whose dura. tion we cannot höpe, without injury to

death, and having a late part yet to act our expectations, in the advent of the

upon this stay of earth. If in the decre

tory term of the world we shall not all last day, were a contradiction to our beliefs. We whose generations are or

die, but be changed, according to redained in this setting part of time, are

ceived translation; the last day will

make but few graves ; at least, "quick providentially taken off from such imaginations. And being necessitated to eye

resurrections will anticipate lasting sethe reinaining particle of futurity, are

pultures; some graves will be opened

before they be quite closed, and Lazarus naturally constituted unto thoughts of the next world, and cannot excusably

be no wonder. When many that feared decline the consideration of that dura

to die shall groan, that they can die but tion, which inaketh pyramids pillars of

once, the dismal state is the second and

living death, when life puts despair on snow, and all that's past a moment."

the damned ; when men shall wish the p. 26.

coverings of mountains, not of monuWe have already extended our ments, and annihilation shall be courted.” extracts beyond our intention, but -p. 29. cannot conclude this article with Of the life of Browne few me. out indulging our readers, who morials are preserved of much inmay not have seen the work itself, terest, and as he was a diligent with two short passages more and extensive practitioner, and a

“ There is nothing strictly immortal, close student in his leisure hours, but immortality; whatever hath no be- it is not to be expected that much ginning may be confident of no end. attention could now be excited by All others have a dependent being, and within the reach of destruction, which is

attempting his biography. It may the peculiar of that necessary essence be gratifying, however, to know,


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upon the authority of his friend and eloquent, and many of his
Whitefoot, that his end was not combinations of phraseology are to
unworthy the man who so as- be classed among the very happiest
suredly exults in Christian hopes. that our literature affords, yet
Whitefoot's words, relative to the these are counterbalanced by te-
close of his life, are these : “ In merities of thought, sentiment, and
his last sickness, wherein he con- diction which are often the indica-
tinued about a week's time, en tions indeed of true genius, but
during great pain of the cholick, which destroy that certain con-
besides a continual fever, with as fidence in the judgments of such
much patience as hath been seen men which we should delight to
in any man, without any pretence cherish, and make us cautious of
of stoical apathy, animosity, or holding them up as models for
vanity, of not being concerned modern imitation.
thereat, or suffering no impeach In venturing to the very verge of
ment of happiness. Nihil agis lawful speculation, though Browne
dolor. His patience was founded very rarely stumbles on the pre-
upon the Christian philosophy, and cipice, yet he sometimes looks
a sound faith of God's providence, down, turns giddy, and makes his
and a meek and humble submis more nervous readers tremble or
sion thereunto, which he expressed shriek for his safety. In his earlier
in few words; I visited him near life he had read much on the side
his end, when he had not strength of infidelity, and though he fully
to hear or speak much; the last embraced the Christian revelation,
words which I heard from him and frequently glories in its dis-
were, besides some expressions of coveries, yet we are not sure that
dearness, that he did freely submit either the force of his imagination,
to the will of God, being without or the ardentia verba, or his fond-
fear: he had oft triumphed over ness for speculation, can be allowed
the king of terrors in others, and to plead an adequate apology on
give many repulses in the defence all occasions for his liberties, to
of patients ; but when his overturn use no stronger term, with some of
came, he submitted with a meek, the sacred verities of his own
rational, and religious courage." creed. But we tread softly over

Of his talents and learning some his ashes. We remember his own adequate idea

may be formed from words : “ He assumes the honourthe extracts we have here pre- able style of a Christian, not besented, as well as from our former cause it is the religion of his counarticle upon the Religio Medici try,” but “having, in his riper and Christian Morals. (See Cong. years and conformed judgment, Mag. for March 1822.) Of his seen and examined all, he finds rare and splendid natural endow- himself obliged, by the principles ments none of his works afford such of GRACE, and the law of his own ample proof as the one now before reason, to embrace no other name us, and of his acquirements and but this.” His works, therefore, learning no memorials remain so are to be read with caution as to complete and decisive as those in the sentiment; and as to their style the present tract. Though, among we can only say, in brief, that it has the men of exalted genius, he is beauties of the highest kind, and entitled to a very high rank, yet affords instances of the most mihe unfortunately lived at that nute and exquisite grace, and surperiod of our literary history, when prises by the originality and force the English language was fast of its epithets, as well as by those sinking from its dignity and purity. complicated elegancies of figure and Though his style is often elegant allusion, in which true genius de



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lights, but that its vices are neither as all authors are supposed to few nor small. On these it is not write at midnight in caves, garour intention to dwell; having al rets, or cells, we deem it advisable ready surpassed the limits of this to let our readers know, that “ 'tis article, we must, for the present, time to close the five ports of dismiss the invidious topic, and knowledge; we are unwilling to close our observations, lest, after spin out our waking thoughts into the splendid entertainment our the phantasms of sleep, which author has afforded, some of our often continueth precogitations, readers should think our own making cables of cob-webs, and lamp burns rather dim. Indeed, wildernesses of groves."

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Profession is 'not Principle ; or the change excites, of course, astonishname of Christian is not Christianity. ment and ridicule, and Conway, an

12mo. 35. 6d.- Edinburgh, 1822. intimate associate, residing for a We have been exceedingly in- home full of anxiety respecting the

time in a foreign country, hastens terested by this little book, notwith

soundness of his friend's intellects. standing some objections to its form In the course of their intercommuand arrangement. It is principally nications, the leading points, both in dialogue, but the style is about of theoretical and experimental reas different from that of actual con- ligion, come under discussion, and versation as can well be imagined. Conway, instead of verifying the Independently of the want of that insanity of Howard, becomes satiscareless and idiomatic undress, fied that he is of sound mind, and is which, within certain limits, is the left, at the close of the volume, a most truly elegant attire of oral

sincere inquirer after divine truth. interchange of thought and feeling, Incidentally to this, the author has there is such a perpetual recurrence introduced the narrative of the conof names — My dear Conway'

version and happy death of one of . My dear Howard'-- Dearest Tra Mr. Howard's sons, for the purpose vers'-as is altogether unusual in actual life. Objections such as

of illustrating the operation of reli

gious conviction on minds of a difthese, however, and some others'

ferent cast. The dying scene of which, if we were hypercritically in

Arthur Howard is interestingly writcliaed, we might make against a

ten, and we shall insert it in this few insulated passages, fade away place. in comparison with the general worth of the book. We are sure

“One night,” says his father, “I that none can read in a right feel thought him much worse, so did Travers,

and we both sat up with him. He seemed ing without deriving profit from its to suffer great uneasiness, and was very contents; and we feel tempted to restless, his breathing high, and quick, make the concession, that if all reli- and oppressed ; and though not asleep, gious fictions were composed in the he seemed almost unconscious of our spirit of this series of dialogues, our prescnce. Travers sat near, watching objections to them would be dis- every motion, and every expression of armed of half their force. Without uneasiness that passed over his still beauattempting a minute analysis of the


tiful countenance ; and with the utmost

tenderness arranging his pillows, or adstory, we may state the general outline as follows. Mr. Howard, a man

justing his uneasy bed. I sat on the

other side, attempting the same; and we of large fortune and distinguished interchanged looks of grief or apprehenfaculties, on his recovery from a

sion, or together raised our eyes to Headangerous indisposition is led to

ven, for his presence to give that relief meditate deeply on divine things, which our love songht in vain to do. At and becomes decidedly pious. This length he fell into an uneasy slumber,


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