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"The watery willow's spray, emboss'd
With many a golden diadem." 8. The weeping or Babylonian willow, so celebrated for its drooping foliage, received its botanical name, Salix Babylonica, from Linnæus, in allusion to the 137th Psalm, where the Jews, in their captivity, are represented as sitting down by the waters of Babylon, and weeping, having hung their harps upon the willows, while their oppressors required of them one of the songs of Sion.
" By Babel's stream the captives sat,
Oh Salem! its sound should be free;
But left me that token of thee :
With the voice of the spoiler by me.-BYRON. 9. The poplar is a member of the Willow family. Like the willow it is easily propagated, growing readily where a green twig is thrust into moist earth. A tree called the tulip poplar, or tulip-tree, common in this country, does not belong to this family. Popular tradition states that the cross was made from the aspen or poplar-tree, and that since the Passion of our Savior the leaves have never known rest. The vibratory motion of the leaves is indeed curious, and never fails to attract the attention of the observer. It arises from the length and slenderness of the footstalks to which they are attached. 10.
"Why tremble so', broad aspen-tree' !
For when the air is still and clear',
Shakes from thy boughs soft twilight's tear',
And never tranquil seem'st to be." 11. The family of Birches is very small, being confined principally to the cooler parts of the northern hemisphere. One species, called the paper birch, furnished the Indians of America the bark of which they made their canoes. The elegance of its appearance has given it the appellation of “Lady of the Woods,” and it is very properly considered the emblem of gracefulness. 12. 66 Oh! come to the woodlands, 'ti
to the woodlands, 'tis joy to behold The new-waken'd buds in our pathway unfold; For spring has come forth, and the bland southern breeze Is telling the tale to the shrubs and the trees,
Which, anxious to show her
The duty they owe her,
But, though beautiful each, sure the fairest of all
That, like breeze of the mountain,
It owns or gush of theme of the mo
It owns not of rest or of slumber the thrall." 14. The “birch-tree” is very prettily introduced in Longfellow's poem of Hiawatha, from which we make the following extract:
Of your yellow bark, o birch-tree!
Take my cloak, O Hiawatha !
LES. XVII.—THE CONE-BEARING, OR PINE FAMILY. 1. In the cone-bearing, or Pine family, exogenous plants assume a new character, in having their seeds uncovered. Like the elm, willow, and birch, their flowers have no corolla: in some species the pistillate and staminate flowers are on the same plant, and in others on different plants, while in other particulars their inflorescence is often irregular, and seemingly imperfect. Yet here we find some of the noblest specimens of the vegetable kingdom; and no other family is of more importance to mankind than this, whether we view it with reference to its timber or its secretions.
2. Many of the trees of this family are gigantic in size, rap
denta'lis, yo des, White cedrus, Ceaus or
1. Pi'nus Canaden'sis, Hemlock or Hemlock spruce, xix. 15, (ap.), 50 f., My., N. Am. 2. Pinus stro'bus, White or Weymouth pine, xix. 15, (ap.), 50-100 f., My., N. Am. 3. Pinus pi'nea, Stone pine, xix. 15, (ap.), 40 f., My., Italy. 4. Pinus or A'bies commu'. nis, Common fir or Norway spruce, xix. 15, (ap.), 100 f., A., N. Europe. 5. Pinus or A'bies rubra, Red spruce, xix. 15, (ap.), 50 f., A., N. Am. 6. La'rix ce'drus, Cedar of Lebanon, xix. 15, (ap.),60 f., A., W. Asia. 7 . Cupre'sus thyoi'des, White cedar or cypress, xix. 15, (ap.), 20 f., A., N. Am. 8. Thuja occidenta'lis, American arbor-vitæ, xix. 15, (ap.), 26 f., A., N. Am. 9. Junip'erus Virginia'na, Red cedar, xx. 15, (ap.), 30 f., My.Jn., N. Am. 10. Tax'us bacca'ta, Common yew, xx. 15, (ap.), 20 f., A., Britain. id in growth, noble in aspect, robust in constitution; and they form a considerable proportion of woods or plantations in cultivated countries, and of forests where nature remains, in temperate countries, in a savage state. Their timber, in commerce, is known under the names of deal, fir, pine, and cedar; and is principally the wood of the spruce, the larch, the Scotch fir, the white or Weymouth pine of Vermont, and the Virginian cedar. Some of the pines of Northwest America are stupendous trees, attaining a height of two hundred and fifty feet. Those products called naval stores, such as tar, turpentine, pitch, together with numerous resins and balsams, are obtained from the Pine family.
3. The cone-bearing trees are not only of great value in ship-building, but in all structures in which durability is desired. From the wood of the juniper the Greeks carved the images of their gods; the wood of the arar-tree of Barbary is considered by the Turks indestructible, and on this account they use it for the ceilings and floors of their mosques; and
the gates of Constantinople, famous for having stood from the time of Constantine to that of Pope Eugene IV., a period of eleven hundred years, were of cypress. The cedar of Lebanon is, perhaps, the most celebrated tree of the whole family, yet it is now scarce on Mount Lib'ănus, whose forests seem never to have recovered from the havoc made by Solomon's four score thousand hewers. The seeds of the stone pine, which are as sweet as almonds, are eaten throughout Italy.
4. As ornamental lown-trees, the larch, the spruce, the firs, the cypress, are unequaled; and the hemlock- M spruce and arbor vitæ are great fa- M vorites for hedges. Well-grown belts Mon of evergreens, which
La'rix pen'dula, “in conic forms arise, Black Larch, or And with a pointed spear divide the skies," American Tamafford a fine protection for gardens in arack. exposed situations, and are often planted, in the Northern States, for that purpose. The fact that a 70 plaintive sound, solemn and sad, is produced by the passage of the wind through the leaves of the pine, is notorious to all observers. Virgil alludes to this music in his eighth Eclogue:
"Begin with me, my pipe, Mænalian strains,
Delightful Mænalus, mid echoing groves
And vocal pines." 5. The poet Hood has, with characteristic humor, described a group of pines, with interlacing branches, writhing in the storm like Laocoon in the folds of the serpents, and weeping gummy tears.
"The pines—those old gigantic pines,
That writhe-recalling soon
With snakes in wild festoon-
A forest Laocoon' —
By tortures overcome,
Bedewed with tears of gum." 6. Of the associations connected with this family, it may be remarked that the cypress especially, on account of the gloomy hue of its leaves, was esteemed by the ancients a suitable ornament of their burial-places, and that it is often alluded to in poetry as the emblem of mourning.
Peace to the dust that in silence reposes
Beneath the dark shades of cypress and yew;
Dark tree! still sad when others' grief is fled,
! GYM'-NO-SPERMS are plants that have na- here departs from the classical pronuncia • ked seeds, such as the pines.
tion, which is Lä-od-0-/n. See p. 70 and 72 · LÄ-0-€ÖÖN'. It will be seen that the poet|RA'-MOUS, branched; full of branches.
LESSON XVIII.—TO A PINE-TREE.
Purple-blue with the distance, and vast;
To its fall leaning awful.
Lusty father of Titans past number!
And thee mantling with silence.
Mid thy snow-silver'd, hushed precipices,
In the quiet of midnight.
Gazing down on thy broad seas of forest-
JAMES Russell LOWELL.
THE PINE-APPLE. [ENDOGENOUS: see next page.]
Brome'lia ana' nas, the Pineapple, vi. 1, pu., 4 f., J.-D., s. America. “This fruit,” says Loudon, “may, without hesitation, be pronounced the first in the world, though it has not been known in Europe above two centuries, and has only been cultivated about a century as a fruit plant in Britain.” First discovered in Brazil, it passed thence to the East
Indies, where it has long been w
successfully cultivated. Many
varieties of the pine-apple have been produced by cultivation. In the West Indies and South America, one species is used for fencing pasture-lands on account of its prickly leaves.