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there was not a man who would not risk he did not now mean to arraign the conhis life and fortune to wipe off the stain duct of the poble lord, who must, howthat it had received; and that, consequent- ever, allow him to say that his administra. ly, no one would refuse to agree to the tion had been at least unfortunate. Thaç Address.
he and his friends had had the manageColonel Barré said, if the noble lord had ment of the American war for three years; been a pensioner of France, he could not which had produced nothing but a series have acted more for the French interest of disappointments and disasters ; plainly than he had done. He recapitulated the shewing them not to be a match for Ameseveral Acts brought in by his lordship rica alone. How, then, would they resist against the Americans. Each minister, le the power of France, added to that of said, had been guilty in his different de. America: That war, under those circumpartment, but the noble lord had been stances, would be a state of despair. That, guilty in all.
therefore, at so critical a moment, he Governor Johnstone observed, that he could not help in ploring the interposition always had been, and still was, against the of the noble earl be had alluded to. That independence of America. He always the noble earl was not only looked up to saw it in the light of imaginations and by this country, but was so feared, as well visions, which gentlemen here were pleased as respected, by every foreign court in to amuse themselves with. It was not the Europe, that his very name would more idea of America herself. He was ex contribute to put a stop to the hostile tremely sorry to see the idea adopted by designs of the whole House of Bourbon, gentlemen with whom he had acted; that than all the mighty preparations we had if he found he had been acting with gen- lately heard so much boasted of; or any, tlemen who were ready to give up the that, he feared, the present condition of supremacy of this country over America, this country was able to make. and to acknowledge the independency of The House divided upon the AmendAmerica, he would sooner cross the floor, ment: Yeas 113; Noe$ 263. Thę Adand join those ministers, whose measures dress was then agreed to. he had always disapproved, than continue to act with those who were entailing ruin The King's Answer to the Commons' upon this country.
Address. His Majesty returned this Mr. Henry Dundas said, if there was no Answer: other help for it, and nothing else could be “ Gentlemen ; done, he should rather wish for the propo- " I return you my hearty thanks, for sition thrown out by the hon. governor of this very dutiful and affectionate Address. forming a fæderal union, than losing Ame- I make no doubt, that, assisted by the adrica totally, or letting her fall into the vice of my parliament, and supported by hands of France. He did of chuse to the spirit of my people, I shall, under the part with America as an enemy. But as Divine Providence, be enabled to repel that time was not yet come, every mea. every insult on the honour of my crown, sure should be tried first; and if it was un to maintain the rights of my subjects, and ayoidable, we could but acquiesce in what to defend all my
dominions." we could not prevent.
Sir George Yonge said, Very well! you Debate on Mr. Fox's Motion relative to mean to come to that at last; and you now the Failure of the Expedition from Calet us see you mean it.
nada.1 March 19. The House went Mr. Aubrey said, that since the noble into a Committee on the State of the Nalord in the blue ribbon had so strongly tion. The subject was the expedition expressed his desire of retiring, which, it from Canada. The papers being read, seemed, the dread alone of his successor's
Mr. Fox rose. He stated the plan of causing confusion in ihe state prevented the expedition as wrong and impracticable ; him from, he begged leave to remind bis not being directed to any point, nor in any lordship, that there was one great states- sense the right way. Though the mi, man, at least, (lord Chatham), who had nister of the American department (lord neither forced the cabinet, nor ever scram. G. Germain) might say, and he understood bled for a place, but who had once already did say, that he took the idea and the plan conducted our public affairs with the per- from general Burgoyne ; yet he affirmed fect unanimity of the two Houses, as well the contrary. The plan was not general 2$ with that of the nation at large. That Burgoyne's ; it differed from general Burgoyne's; and wherever it did so, it the nation; it now appearing, as he had blundered. This expedition was not a always foretold it would, to involve in it plan of diversion in our favour, but a di- the case of absent men. As a charge was version against ourselves, by separating now brought against a noble lord, who that force which ought to have been united was secretary of state in the American to one point, that of dispersing the rebel department, it must now be decided upon; army; instead of which, it left general otherwise he should move for the chairHowe too weak, upon the plan the noble man leaving the chair. lord suggested to him; and sent general Mr. Mucd unuld said, enough was now Burgoyne, with a still lesser army, to a brought to shew there was blame someplace where the
enemy were much where : it was a fact admitted on both stronger. He said this only for argument, sides the House. One side laid the blame to shew that the measure was originally on the noble lord; and that charge he wrong in the design ; and added, that he thought must be decided upon. But he should move something on this point. But begged the committee to recollect, that if the matter upon which he should make his it was decided that the blame did not rest present motion, was that part of the exe- upon the noble lord, a further enquiry recution which belonged to the minister, not mained to be made, Who it did rest upon ? to the officers. The principal and indeed Mr. Joliffe. The event of the expedisole design of sending general Burgoyne tion to Canada, has not only annihilated from Canada, was that of forcing his way the idea of the conquest of America, but to Albany, and making a junction with has lost an army of 8,000 men; has cost general Howe. This was a plan of co-ope this country an infinite sum, and the lives ration, in the execution of which two par- of many thousands of its best subjects. ties were concerned, but orders were given It is the blackest page in the English hisonly to one party; the other party was tory; it is a disgrace which this nation left ignorant of the design. This ap- never can recover. But, dreadful as the peared from the minister's letters to the consequence of this event is, and may be, commanders, and from the commanders' much as this country must ever deplore a letters to each other. It was intending catastrophe so fatal, and sincerely as I wish two men to meet at one place, but giving the heaviest vengeance to fall on those who orders to only one to go there ; and then merit it, I think it would ill become the blaming the execution, because the other, candour which ought to distinguish this who did not know he was to go there, did House, it would even be a subversion of not meet him ; but who, on the contrary, justice, were we to condemn those who had acquainted the person with whom the concerted the plan, merely because it has orders lay, that he was going another way. not proved successful. The design canUpon these grounds, he insisted, that the not be judged of by the event. It would whole disconcertion and failure of general be an insult to common sense, were I to Burgoyne's expedition, was owing to pretend that I thought the loss of Bureither the ignorance or negligence of the goyne's army was the effect of chance; or secretary of state who had the direction of that this country would not minutely enit; by which one of his Majesty's armies quire and resent it. It is impossible to was totally lost, and in consequence of that, conceive 8,000 men reduced to the situathirteen provinces were lost, to the utter tion they are, without great fault in some ruin of this country. He moved, that the one. I could have wished that this encommittee would come to three Resolu- quiry had been deferred; for, indisput. tions, which were, in substance, That the ably, it would be the highest injustice, it plan of the Canada expedition had been would be cruelty in the extreme, to il concerted ; that, from the measures extend your enquiry to the conduct of adopted, it was impossible it should suc- general Burgoyne. 'He even knows not ceed; and that the instructions sent to of the subject of your deliberations. Whe. general Howe to co-operate with general ther his rashness precipitated this army Burgoyne, had not been such as were ne- into destruction, or whether his delays cessary to insure success to the latter. produced this unhappy surrender, we can After which, he said, he should offer a come to no resolution. We ought not to fourth resolution of censure upon lord suffer ourselves to form an opinion. To George Germain,
censure, or even to question, his conduct Lord Nugent principally spoke to the at this time, would be a breach of all the impropriety of the enquiry into the state of laws of justice, by which, every man ought to be present when he is accused. If, duced to the necessity of a general engageSir, I am unwilling to condemn, or even to ment. The advantages being infinite, had scrutinize, the conduct of general Bur- the event been successful, was not the migoyne, it becomes me to be no less guarded nister warranted in attempting it? Would in what I say of sir William Howe. Great be not have been condemnable, if he had guilt may rest with him; but there being adopted any other? no paper of importance relative to him Let us now, Sir, enquire, whether the before us, except the letter of lord G. Secretary of State complied with the reGermain of the 18th of May, we must be quisitions of the general, and by every silent respecting that great officer, until means in his power, promoted the success he returns to England. I shall therefore of the undertaking. No complaint having only submit to you my sentiments on the been made, that every necessary to forconduct of the noble lord at the head of the ward the expedition was not afforded, I American department ; and I hope to de- might be warranted in concluding that the monstrate, that the loss of this army can general was supplied with every thing he no way be attributed to him ; that the plan could wish. But yet, let us examine that was not only practicable, but that it was matter. General Burgoyne, by his necessary for him to adopt it; and that he thoughts on the war, expresses himself contributed every thing in his power to thus : I conceive the operating army, exensure success.
clusive of troops left for the service of CaAt the opening of the campaign, in nada, ought not to consist of less than 1777, the attention of the whole nation 8,000 regulars, rank and file; the artillery, was taken up by the intended junction of in the memorandums of general Carleton, the armies, and thereby cutting off all ! a corps of watermen, 2,000 Canadians, and communication between the northern and, a thousand or more savages; the Canasouthern provinces. Every one approved dians and savages were totally out of the the measure. I am warranted, therefore, power of the secretary of state; and he in saying, that the voice of the whole could only give direction to sir Guy country concurred with the noble lord ; Carleton, to provide them, if possible. and had it succeeded, there cannot be a All that was within the immediate power doubt of the most happy consequences. of the secretary of state were the regular Unless the rebel army could be brought troops, and the necessaries of the army. to a general engagement, skirinishes might By the letter, 28th March, 1777, from protract the war, at a vast expence; and ( lord G. Germain to sir Guy Carleton, he ihough successful, but little forward the is required to put 7,173 effective men conclusion. The reputation of general under the command of general Burgoyne, Burgoyne, the universal opinion of his and 675 under the command of col. St. skill and bravery, made him appear to the Leger ; making together 7,848. It was noble lord and to the whole world, as the hardly possible to be nearer the number; fittest general that could be found for such and I defy the most determined persecutor an expedition. He solicited it by his let- of ministry to say, this event was owing to ter 1st of January, 1777; by No. 9 he the want of 150 men. states his plan for the campaign. The na- By the letter from lord George to sir tion called for it. The general solicited W. Howe, 18th May, 1777, he has these the undertaking; and himself forms the words : “ the King trusts, whatever you plan. The noble lord would have deserv. meditate may be executed in time to coed every degree of censure, had he im. operate with the army ordered to proceed peded, or even if he had not forwarded the from Canada.” This is a proof that coattempt. I have no doubt he thought operation was expected by all parties. well of it; but had bis opinion been con- Could the minister do more? Will any trary, it would be impossible to justify his man conduct your affairs, if he is to be resisting the calls of his country, and the accountable not only for the expediency, solicitations of a brave and favourite ge. but for the success, of every measure ? A neral. The advantage of crossing the general of the greatest military skill, execountry was obvious; by this means all cuting a design of his own suggesting, communications between the northern and commanding the number of troops he resơuthern provinces would have been pre- quired, supplied with every necessary his vented. Had general Burgoyne received imagination could suggest, supported by a the expected co-operation, the army under co-operation of the armies, so far as the general Washington must have been re- minister is concerned, could there be a He appears
fairer prospect of success ? Could the mi- tary of state appears to have done every nister imagine that sir W. Howe would thing to ensure its success. not give his assistance; or that general to me, therefore, to merit the hearty thanks Burgoyne, finding himself disappointed in of his country. that
expectation, would still persist, and Mr. Henry Dundas commented on the not secure a retreat ? The general speaks papers, with a view to shew that the plan of his peremptory orders; they passed was a wise one ; that it was attended to in through sir Guy Carleton; and express, the execution with assiduity and ability; that general Burgoyne and col. St. Leger that it was a plan of junction of co-operaare to be put under the command of sir tion, not a junction of the bodies of the W. Howe; and until they receive order armies ; and that the noble lord had given from him, they are to act at discretion; orders to every officer to attend to that but they are never to lose view of their co-operation. intended junction with sir W. Howe, as Sir Richard Sutton thought the papers their principal object. They are to act did not warrant the committee to agree to at their discretion-is that peremptory? the proposed Resolutions, and that thereThey are to have in view their junction fore they ought to be thrown out. with sir W. Howe; but until that junction Mr. Powys thought there was an improis established, they continue to act as their priety in the measure, because general discretion dictates. But, Sir, had the or- Burgoyne was absent. ders been the most peremptory that lan- Lord John Cavendish said, it would guage can convey, they could not have have been better if general Burgoyne was been compulsory, when dangers and diffi- present; but thought there was matter culties arose which could not be foreseen. enough in the papers to justify the resoluOrders are given according to the appear- tions. ance of things at the time they are issued ; Mr. Burke supported Mr. Fox throughthey cease, therefore, to be peremptory out. when affairs totally change. No general Lord North said it was proper for him would undertake an expedition, unless to rise, although the charge was not persomething was left to his discretion. Or- sonal against him: as nothing was done by ders must be conveyed in general terms; the noble lord, that had not the concurand must be applied according to the in- rence of all his Majesty's ministers, he tention of those who give them : they can must consider himself as included; and it be no otherwise interpreted, than to regu- , was his duty to take his share in the crime, late that which is inconsistent with the ge- if any such was proved, and in the cenneral plan, and dangerous in itself, and to sure, if any such was passed. adopt such a line of conduct as shall most Lord George Germain followed lord conduce to the end proposed. What was North exactly. Mr. Dunning said, the the end proposed by this expedition ? By noble lord had promised to send to general crossing the country, to produce a junc- Howe the same orders he had given to tion of the armies. The general's duty, general Burgoyne, but he positively astherefore, was to obtain the end. The serted his lordship never did send them. mind of man cannot furnish a reasonable After a long debate, the Committee diground to conceive that, at all events, vided: For the Resolutions 44; Against however the face of affairs might change, them 16+. let what difficulties might arise, let a situa- Mr. Fox, in great warmth, declared he tion be supposed, in which it was impossi- would not make another motion ; and takble for his army to escape being cut to ing the resolution of censure out of his pieces; yet that he was to proceed at all pocket, tore it in pieces, and then went hazards. Such an interpretation would out of the House. As soon as Mr. Fox have destroyed the intent of the expedi- was gone, tion; and it is not possible to imagine, The Solicitor General moved, “ That it that the general could consider himself does not appear to this Committee, that bound to obey such orders, though he had the failure of the Expedition from Canada received them from the secretary of state. arose from any neglect in the Secretary Much more might be said ; but I should of State.” The Resolution was agreed to precipitate myself into a condemnation of by the Committee, but was never reported those I do not wish to mention. The ex- to the House. pediency of the measure is apparent, the practicability of it obvious, and the secre. Debate on the Duke of Richmond's Mo
tein for withdrawing the Forces from Ame- resentment. More fully to support this rica:] March 23. The House being in opinion, the duke desired their lordships a Committee on the State of the Nation, to look back to their own history, and see
The Duke of Richmond rose. He be- what had been done on similar occasions. gan with enumerating the several benefits Queen Elizabeth, the most zealous for the which had resulted from the inquiries of preservation of the national honour of all the committee, namely, the ascertainment the crowned heads who had possessed the of the state of the army, the state of the throne of these kingdoms, assisted the Hunavy, the general expenditure in conse- guenots with 100,0001. and 6,000 men, quence of the American war, and a par- although the Huguenots were actually the ticular investigation of a part of that ex subjects of France, and were then in open penditure; he declared that he thought it arms against their sovereign. A reinonwas owing to the committee that ministers strance took place, but no war ensued. had so far been brought to their senses as The same princess, when in perfect peace to set about something like an attempt to with Spain, assisted the confederates with accommodate matters with the Americans, a large sum of money, who were then enand to prepare a plan, which, however in- deavouring to throw off the Spanish yoke; adequate it might be, was certainly a plan and, what was more, Elizabeth, in her noof conciliation, inasmuch as it gave up tification of this fact to the Spanish court, many of the most obnoxious points in con- expressly said, that she lent the confedetest. The main object he had in view, rates the money, and assisted them with when he moved for the committee, was to the men, out of her love and affection to lay a foundation for such measures as were her good friend, the king of Spain, having most likely to promise respect and reputa- no other view but to preserve the states for tion abroad, and a re-union with our re- him, and prevent their throwing themvolted colonies. The inquiry, so far as selves into the arms of France. This prehad yet appeared, went clearly to prove text, his grace declared, was not much rethat our land force was totally inadequate lished by the king of Spain ; however, that to the purposes of either an offensive or monarch thought it prudent not to take defensive war; our trade had been most any serious notice of it, and no war broke materially injured; such of our dependen- out between the two kingdoms for some cies as we still retained possession of were years. His grace said, the treaty entered in a most ruinous and defenceless condi- into between France and America was tion; and our naval force on different sides certainly a defensive one, as it stated that of the Atlantic, he feared, was far from France was determined to protect her being in the flourishing state it had been commerce with America; a matter so obso repeatedly described. He was happy, viously the consequence of her treaty, that however, to discover, that our military it was exceedingly unnecessary to have force within the kingdom was much stated it in her notification to the King's strengthened since the returns were made, servants, and he heartily wished it had not on which, in the early stages of the com- been stated. If we attacked France, Amemittee, he had framed his resolutions. rica was bound in honour to assist her By the last returns on the table, it ap- against us; and if we could not conquer peared that the old corps were become America singly, when joined with France, nearly complete, consisting of 19,000 men, there appeared to be but little hopes of and the new levies already amounted to our success: he begged their lordships, 8,000, and would probably at a very short therefore, maturely to consider the conse period be quite full, which would amount quence of a rupture with France, on the to an additional force of 15,000 men: ground of the treaty; repeating, that com
The public, he observed, were much mencing a war upon such a ground would indebted to a noble duke (Bolton), for not only confirm the independency of that part of the inquiry into the state of America, but put an end to all hopes of the nation which he had, undertaken, reconciliation with her on any terms. namely, the navy. His grace then men- His grace next came to a consideration tioned the King's Message on the French of what was proper to be done in the preambassador's Declaration, and repeated, sent situation of affairs; and earnestly that he was sorry to see the Message pressed the ministry immediately to put couched in terms of warmth and anger, the nation into a respectable state of deand still more sorry to see their lordships fence. He highly applauded the measure take up the business in the same style of of calling out the militia ; but many other