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a monopoly, and justly claim no small the honour of our sovereign, and the humashare in it, from their vigorous efforts in nity of the nation. I am shocked, Sir, at favour of the Pretender in 1745. It will, the false rumours daily spread, and the Sir, be a new and curious spectacle in foul reproaches cast on the common fa1778, to mark the North pouring forth her ther of all his people. It is circulated in hardy sons to quell an American, not to aid print, Sir, that on the 17th of October, a 'native, rebellion, carefully nursed in our after Burgoyne's capitulation, in which frozen bosom, and afterwards in a tainted Gates demonstrated a refined sense of hopart of England kindly tendered and fos-nour, unparalleled in European armies, the tered in its progress to the South. The British general was received with respect, third set of persons, lately mentioned, are and dined with the American hero; that the country gentlemen. I respect the nothing unkind was said to him, except character, but I fear many of them are asking “ how he could find in his heart to hostile to America and American rights. burn the poor country people's houses They are for the most part steady, not wherever he passed ;" and that he anburthened or perplexed with many ideas, swered, “ that it was the King's orders.” and perhaps with few of a very liberal From all the letters of Burgoyne it has nature. A single principle appears of late been repeatedly asserted, that the proto have governed them. They hoped to ject of the Canadian expedition originated throw off from their shoulders on the poor from the closet of the King, and the office Americans a considerable part of the enor of the American Secretary; and that the mous burdens, under which they groan, employing the savages against our fellowof the debts of their late adopted German, subjects was among the primary ideas and the present American, war. The adopted on that occasion. The American noble lord with the blue ribbon had as- Secretary, in a letter to general Carleton, sured them of a solid and substantial re- dated Whitehall
, March 26, 1777, says, venue from America. On this plan of “ As this plan cannot be advantageously private, æconomy to them the minister executed without the assistance of Canabargained for their support. Their dis- dians and Indians, his Majesty strongly appointment, and the sense of his jockey- recommends it to your care to furnish both ship, has undoubtedly much chagrined expeditions with good and sufficient bothem—but I will not dwell on this subject. dies of those men. And I am happy in Their eyes seem to be opening, just as they knowing that your influence among them are drowning.
is so great, that there can be no room to Another hon. gentleman (Mr. Gilbert) apprehend you will find it difficult to fulcomplains, “ that every thing respecting til his Majesty's intentions." In the the public is in a great degree neglected, “Thoughts for conducting the war from and that some of our most important con- the side of Canada, by general Burgoyne," cerns are scarcely regarded." He has which were approved by the King, Buraccordingly, with much good sense, held goyne desires a thousand or more savages. out to the House the idea of a committee to Colonel Butler was directed to distribute examine into the expenditure of the pub- the King's bounty-money among such of lic money during this war. I agree with the savages as would join the army; and, him, that nothing is now secure, or indeed after the delivery of the presents, he asks properly taken care of except the Pro- for 4,01 11. York currency more, before he testant succession. His proposals meet left Niagara. He adds, in a letter on our my full and warm approbation. Another table, “ I fatter myself that you will not committee, however, seems to me still think the expence, however high, to be more immediately necessary, a committee useless, or given with too lavish a handto enquire into the nature and causes of I waited seven days, to deliver them the the failure of the Canadian expedition, for presents, and give them the hatchet, we cannot hide the nation's scar. I am which they accepted, and promised to sorry to be informed that the House is to make use of it." This letter is dated be prorogued at Easter, for I fear we can- Ontario, July 28, 1777. In another from not in this session undertake both these the same officer it is said, “ The Inimportant concerns. The enquiry into dians threw in a heavy fire on the rebels, the Canadian expedition, the loss of a Bri- and made a shocking slaughter with their tish army, and the horrid cruelties said to spears and hatchetsThe success of this be committed on our fellow-subjects, are day will plainly shew the utility of your of the first importance, both to vindicate excellency's constant support of my unwearied endeavours to conciliate to his "I humbly laid myself at his Majesty's Majesty so serviceable a body of allies." feet for such active employment as he This is a letter from colonel Butler to sir might think me worthy of. This was the Guy Carleton, dated “ Camp before Fort substance of my audience on my part. I Stanwix, Aug. 15, 1777.” Burgoyne's undertook it, and I now report to your barbarous proclamation appears to be only lordship, in the hope of your patronage a consequence of his sanguinary instruc- in this pursuit ; a hope, my lord, founded tions.
not only upon a just sense of the honour General Gates's letters have informed your lordship's friendship must reflect upon the world with what savage ferocity and me, but also upon a feeling that I deserve cruelty the Indians carried on a war, to it, in as much as a solid respect, and sinwhich they were so strongly invited. An cere personal attachment can constitute Indian campaign is known to be produc- such a claim.” In his letter of June 22, tive of every species of torture, to which 1777, he seems to have fully entered into the human frame is subject. In the last the ideas of his principal ; for he says, campaign scarcely fewer women and chil- " that he met the Indians yesterday in dren in some parts where the war raged congress, and gave them a war-feast acwith the greatest fury, expired under the cording to their custom," of which wartorture of the tomahawk and scalping- feast we know the most solemn ceremony knife, than were killed by the sword or to be drinking human blood out of the bayonet among those who bore arms. skulls of their enemies. In the same conColonel Butler's letter to sir Guy Carle- ference he consents to the mangling of ton of July 28th says, “ many of the pri- the dead, for he says that he " allowed the soners were, conformable to the Indian Indians to take the scalps of the dead.” custom, afterwards killed.” Has the Se. Surely, Sir, an enquiry into those horrors, cretary at War, (lord Barrington), yet and the failure of an expedition which has thanked the savages in the King's name not only disgraced our arms, but degraded for their alacrity? I have not had time the name of Englishmen, and fixed a foul fully to examine the numerous papers on stain on our national character, is still our table, and therefore I am ignorant more worthy of our enquiry than even the whether we have any letter from his waste of public treasure, although we are, lordship similar to that from the War-of- I fear, if the war continues, too near the fice, of the 12th of May, 1768, “ that brink of a general bankruptcy. having had the honour of mentioning to I observe, Sir, that gentlemen have this the King the behaviour of the detach day been very fond of giving advice to ments from the several tribes of Indians, ministers. I am not fond at any time of which have lately been employed in scalp giving advice, but I will for once follow ing and tomahawking his American sub- the example. My advice then, Sir, to jects, he has great pleasure in informing administration is, to supplicate his Majesty the general, that his Majesty highly ap- to order an immediate cessation of arms in proves of the conduct both of the Indian North America, and to recall his forces. chiefs and the men, and means that his Humanity and justice call aloud for this royal approbation should be communicated measure. The minister has at last conto them through the general. Employing fessed, we cannot conquer America. To Indians in such a service gives him (the what purpose then are more torrents of Secretary at War] pain, but it is neces- blood to be shed? The Americans will
He hopes they will continue to accept, or they will reject, your propoperform their duty with alacrity. Every sitions. If they are accepted, the war is possible regard shall be shewn to their at an end by concession. If they are rezeal, and they shall have the protection of jected, the end of the war, conquest, has the law, and this office, under every disa- been found, and is now acknowledged to greeable circumstance."
be, impracticable. The shedding of the Mr. Burgoyne held himself out as an blood therefore of a single man for an obactive agent on this occasion, not by the ject, which confessedly cannot be obtained, slightest mention of any supposed military is not only unjustifiable, but highly crimitalents, but by such abject flattery of the nal. Many of the measures of opposition American Secretary, as I hope no other have been at length adopted by ministers. man in Europe could commit. He de- I hope this, the most important of all, will clares in a letter to lord George Germaine, have the same success. An immediate dated from Hertford-street, Jan. 1, 1777, cessation of arms was proposed the very first day of this session, by an excellent | what the first lord of the admiralty had so young nobleman on this side the House often said respecting the flourishing state (the marquis of Granby). It will do of the navy, he little expected to see him more than all your commissioners can rise and impede that inquiry which tended without it. Perhaps it may save Howe to prove what the noble earl declared he from the fate of Burgoyne. It will give wished all the world knew. All he aimed time for cooling on both sides, and at least at was to obtain authentic information, shew that you are relenting towards your and at this critical period to convince the brethren, and eager for that peace and nation of the real state of the navy. No reconciliation, which alone can form the person was, surely, so proper to throw solid happiness of both countries, and light upon the subject as the Surveyor of must be devoutly wished by every friend the Navy; the propriety or impropriety of to their mutual prosperity. It may save the questions might be determined at the the fragments of this dismembered em- time of putting them. He meant not to pire, for I own I shall tremble for the fate inquire into the state of the ordinary, or to of Canada, nearly lost three years ago, as press upon any tender ground; but merely well as for Nova Scotia, the Two Floridas, to interrogate as to the condition of the and even the West Indian islands, if the ships in commission, which he conceived powerful confederacy of the Thirteen to be a fair object of inquiry, United Colonies continues.
The Lord Chancellor said, that to exaSir, I heartily wish success to these mine the Surveyor of the Navy, who, of Conciliatory Bills, and that we may regain course, was in every secret respecting the by treaty what we have lost by tyranny state of the ships in actual service, or preand arms. I would agree to almost any paring for service, was, in his opinion, treaty rather than continue this ruinous highly impolitic. The first lord of the war, which has cost already above thirty Admiralty had repeatedly declared the millions sterling, and the loss of 20,000 navy to be in a fourishing condition, and men. I entirely approve the effort, al- he did not doubt but it was so. To what though I have my fears that it is made too end, then, examine an officer at the bar, late. Still, sat benè, si sat citò. Let the whose examination, most probably, would experiment however be tried, and may tend to divulge matters which ought to be both Britain and America again form one kept secret! Two hundred questions or powerful empire on the principles of equal more might be put to him, for nobody liberty, just, mild, commercial, and tole- could foretell either their number or their rant! We shall then be able to stand the nature. It was no justification, therefore, shock of all the adverse powers of the of the present motion, for the noble duke world, again feared and respected abroad, singly to declare, that he would not press and at home a great, united, and happy upon tender ground, much less was it a people.
justification of it for his grace to remind The Bill was then passed.
their lordships that it was in their power to
prevent any improper questions being . Debate in the Lords on a Motion for put; such a prevention or refusal would the Attendance of the Surveyor of the have a worse effect than a compliance with Navy.] Feb. 25. The Duke of Bolton every question that could be proposed; moved, “ That the Surveyor of his Majes- for men without doors would naturally ty's Navy do attend this House on the 2d imagine, that the answer must necessarily of March.”
have been more alarming than possibly it The Earl of Sandwich said, that the en
would have turned out. quiry into the State of the Nation had The Duke of Richmond said, he hardly already been pushed further than was knew in what manner to reply to the strange warranted either by prudence or policy ; objection which he had just heard made that with regard to the State of the Navy, to the noble duke's motion ; the lords in for his own part, he cared not how closely office were determined to preclude parliathe subject was investigated; but viewing ment from reaping any benefit from the the matter as a statesman, he could not enquiry. There had not been a single withhold his objections to the present mo- proposition, tending to obtain information tion. It was not possible for it to answer as to the real state of the nation, which any good purpose, and if carried, might do had not been objected to, and denied much mischief.
since the enquiry was begun. To what · The Duke of Bolton replied that, from end, then, pursue the enquiry? Let their
lordships recollect, that it was not now the of the navy, and teach foreign powers how moment to debate or refuse what was they might best attack us ? urged by the noble duke in his motion. The Earl of Effingham produced two The House had resolved to enquire into extracts; one from the Journals of the the state and condition of the navy pre- Lords, and the other from the Commons, vious to the recess. Before that resolu- shewing that in 1707, on a similar enquiry, tion was come into, was the hour to object, the quantity and value of the naval stores and not the present. Parliament had re- then in the yards, were given in to each solved to enquire, parliament now wished House, and other matters, to the full as to enquire, and the lords in office were delicate as the object of the present mo. endeavouring to prevent them from so tion, were fully entered upon." He wished doing. The noble duke moved for the the noble earl who said we were on the Surveyor of the Navy to attend at the bar, eve of a war with France, would have and the learned lord who had left the spoken more fully to so important a point; woolsack objected. Why? Because the in order that the House might judge of the Surveyor of the Navy knew every thing propriety of immediately advising his Marelative to the real state and condition of jesty to call out the militia, and of taking the navy! The
very reason why the Sur- other measures to put the kingdom in a veyor, of all other men, was the most fit better state of defence. person to be examined. With regard to Earl Gower said, that he had only mentionwhat had fallen from the first lord of the ed a war with France as a probable event; Admiralty, how was his declaration of that that as affairs stood, it was not at all un. day to be reconciled with his language on likely, and therefore it was natural for him the first day of the session, when, in reply to have his apprehensions of its taking to the speech of a noble earl, (of Chatham) place soon. He knew nothing of a treaty he had said, the navy was in so flourishing having been signed between the court of a condition, that he cared not who knew France and America, as had been reportit; that he wished foreign powers were ac- ed, and he would venture to say, the rest quainted with it, as he was sure it would of the King's ministers were equally un. effectually tend to preserve us from any apprised of any such circumstance. probability of a war ; that he cared not The Earl of Radnor declared, if the how soon the enquiry was begun, and motion were rejected for the reasons would assist as far as he could ?
which had been assigned, their lordships The Earl of Sandwich said, that the no- would treat the present first lord of the ble duke who made the motion, knew that Admiralty, with more respect than their in every country there were ships upon ancestors had treated the husband of the paper which were not fit for service. That queen of England on a former occasion. it was politic always to put the best face The question was called for and put: upon the state of the navy, and it never Contents 11; Non-contents 23. had been deemed wise to pry too minutely into particulars, which if generally known, Debate in the Lords on the Duke of Bolcould do no good, but might be the cause ton's Motion respecting the State of the of injury to the nation: he repeated that Navy.] March 2. The House having the navy was in a most flourishing condi- resolved itself into a Committee on the tion, and advised the noble duke to with- State of the Nation, draw his motion,
The Duke of Bulton rose. He acknowThe Duke of Bolton said, that he was ledged his own insufficiency to take a part far from wishing to expose the weakness of in an enquiry which had been hitherto the navy, and that from what the first conducted with so much ability by the nolord of the Admiralty had so often said ble duke (of Richmond) near him; and about its fine condition, he could not but after passing several compliments to the be greatly surprized at his present lan candour and ability of his grace, observed, guage.
that the most arduous parts of it had been Lord Dudley said, it was a custom in all already finished, which was one motive countries to keep the state of the navy as with him to undertake, with more confisecret as possible.
dence, the part of it which was to furnish Earl Gower said, that the present motion the particular enquiry of this day. His was improper. Cui bono at this time, grace then proceeded to recapitulate the when we were probably on the eve of a leading heads which had come
out in war with France, to expose the weak parts proof during the previous part of the en[VOL. XIX.)
quiry, as properly introductive of what he information contained in the papers on the whs about to submit to their lordships' table; it was no more, therefore, than a consideration. They all equally related mere evasion, not to shield the nation to the state of the nation, and as such, from danger, but ministers from blame, must be taken together and connected. which he should prove, from documents Those, he observed, related to the state of not to be doubted, from their lordships' our military defence; of our commerce ; | Journals; and that not on the eve of an of our loss in men and money; of our abi- expected war, but in the very height of Jity to pursue the war; and of our real si- one of the greatest this country ever tuation respecting foreign powers, parti- waged; and accompanied, too, with circularly our natural enemies, the several cumstances of a very critical nature, both branches of the House of Bourbon. He foreign and domestic. His grace then observed, that our whole military defence, moved, that a Resolution reported from a instead of 17,000, amounted to little more committee, and entered in the Journals of than 10,000 effective men; that the actual 1707 and of 1741, might be read; by force in Ireland, which should be 12,000 which it appeared, that similar committees in times of profound tranquillity, now at had been formed; that they had come to the eve of an approaching war was short several important resolutions, tending, in of that number in an equal proportion; the language of the noble lords in office, that we had suffered by captures nearly to expose our national weakness, and to 3 millions of property; had already lost disclose secrets of a nature not so much as 20,000 men by the land war alone, and thought of in the present enquiry. The expended 23 million of money; that, in state and condition of the several ships, consequence of those captures, our Afri- the number of guns and men, their stacan trade was entirely ruined, because the tions, &c. The Journals being accord. tract from Africa to the West India ing read, his grace proceeded to state his islands, the mart for the produce of the intended resolutions, which he classed former, had beeen entirely neglected. On under three heads; the state of our fleet the windward side of Barbadoes, from serving in America under lord Howe; every part of Africa within the line, all the state of the line of battle ships for the vessels must pass that island. All its vi- | home defence; and that of our frigates cinities, and the tract alluded to, had been for home service. On the first head, he left without a single ship to protect that observed, that our fleet serving under lord invaluable branch of our commerce, the Howe, consisted of 83 ships and vessels of consequence of which was, that those seas force, of all sizes; that their complements, swarmed with American privateers. Our if full, would be 22,000 ; but out of that own coasts were no less shamefully neg. number 4,300 were lost by death, capJected; and, what was still, if possible, in-tivity, or sickness; that consequently the finitely more mischievous, a great part of ships must be badly manned and foul, bethe stores sent from hence, was not only ing now nearly two years out of dock, lost for want of convoys or defence, but which, if it should become necessary to fell into the hands of the Americans, continue them longer in actual service, which, above any other circumstance, con- the deficiency in men must be made up duced mostly to all our subsequent disas. from hence, and the ships replaced by ters, as the colonies were thereby enabled others, clean and better equipped. He to procure what it was not possible to ob- could not help mentioning a very alarmtain in sufficient quantities, in any other ing circumstance, which was, that of the
After having recapitulated all deficiency of the number of seamen shipthe leading facts, which had bitherto come ped, nearly one half was occasioned by deout in the course of the enquiry, he said, sertion. he thought it his duty, before he proceed- His
grace then proceeded to the state ed farther, to obviate the only semblance of the line of batile ships for the home of an objection, which had been made to defence. He lamented, that he was prethe committee, namely, that resolving vented from giving that information to matters of fact, would go to the exposure
the committee he wished, by having his of our national weakness. This, he said, two motions negatived; one for the state was fallacious and ridiculous. If foreign of the ships in ordinary, before the recess, powers wanted information, they might, and a recent one, for the attendance of for a trifling sum of money, obtain much the surveyor of the navy at their lordships -more important intelligence, than all the bar. The latter would inform their lord