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and commerce; we had every reason to , national prosperity, surely national prosbelieve, that not only the state was poor; perity was never at a lower ebb. but that even individuals were far from On the last point, that of union at home, being opulent: and if we should continue he said he believed, since the first estato go on as we had for the last ten years ; | blishment of government in this country, and, in consequence of such a career, we it never was more disunited. The other should be drove to rely solely on our real causes operating so strongly, he said it resources, instead of paper, he feared, so was impossible it could be otherwise ; and far from being an opulent, we should find now he was free to declare, he saw.no ourselves a most indigent and distressed means of saving us from certain destruc. nation.

tion, but taking the advice given by As to the dignity of the crown, and the Manly in the play of the Provoked Husa personal ease of the sovereign, he had bband, to his friend sir Francis Wronghead, every reason to believe this would be found in the midst of the knight's distress, he wanting. There was towards the close of applies for advice to Manly, who tells hiin, the last session a very considerable sum “ Sir Francis, the road which brought of inoney granted to discharge the arrears you here will lead you back to the place of the Civil List, and a much more consi- from which you set out." Now, said his derable augmentation made to his Majes lordship, I cannot help thinking that the ty's income. He believed, that the money wisest way for us to recover froin the disgranted by parliament, served to relieve tress brought on this country by the fatal some persons about St. James's, and an- | effects of the American war, is to tread swered other purposes; but further the back step by step every one motion we generosity of parliament neither appeared | have made respecting it. nor was felt; and thus the money intended The question was put, that the chairfor the fairest, most honourable, and noblest man do leave the chair: Contents, 66: purposes, was employed to others of a very | Non-contents, 28. different and pernicious nature.

As soon as the House was resumed, the On national character, or the respect duke of Richmond moved the following which we bore with foreign nations, that, Resolutions. he had every reason to believe, was still

1. That it appears to this House, that in a more marked contradiction to what

the expences of the Navy, Army, and Orde was generally understood to denote na.

| nance, as voted by parliament, and taken tional prosperity. The truth was, that

on an average of years of profound peace, we had been for some years insulted and

| has not exceeded 3,371,0001. per annum, contemned by almost every power in Eu

| under the following heads : rope, with whom we had any thing to do. The United Provinces, who were our an

Navy. cient, and, in some respects, our natural

| 16,000 seamen, at 521. per avn. per

man ...................................... 832,000 allies, had not only refused us all aid, but Ordin

Ordinary of the navy, upon an average, had actually from the commencement of from 1764, to 1772, inclusive.........

410,000 the present contest, given every assistance Ship-building taken upon an arerage, they could to our revolted subjects in 1 from 1766, to 1770, inclusive 284,000 America. Another great power on the

Annual increase of navy debt on 16,000

seamen, taken on an average of continent, Prussia, had, on account of a

1765, 1766, 1767, 1769, 1769 ..... 111,000 state demand, due ever since the late in. glorious peace, refused a passage to the Total af Navy Espence...., ,637,000 foreign troops taken into our pay ; by whică the most favourite measures of our | Gaards, garrisons, plantations, &c. ministers, as far as that circumstance could

about

1,000,000 be supposed to operate, were defeated. Chelsea and half pay, &C.......... 230,000 France, our natural rival and enemy, had Staff, widows, &c.

15,000 carried on a trade with our colonies, and Carriedono trade with our colonies and Extraordinaries of the army, on an ave.

269,000 bad supplied them with all kinds of mili. I rage, from 1768, to 1775 tary stores; by which particular assistance,

Total of Army Expence...... 1,514,000 more than any other circumstance whatever, our colonies had been enabled to resist the most vigorous exertions of the he Ordinary .................

170,000 | Extraordinary ...........................

50.000 whole force of this country. If respect with foreign powers was an evidence of Total of Ordnance Expence....... 220,000 [VOL. XIX.)

1 [3 C)

ARMY.

ORDNANCE.

Navy.

....

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Navy ....

Army....................... 1,514,000

ARMY. Navy.................... 1,637,000 | Guards aud garrisons .................... 659,200 Total of Establishment for Navy,

Forces in the plantations

723,139 Army, and Ordnance, on an average

Difference of British and Irish pay...... 42,530 . of years profound peace............... 3,371,000 | Generals and staff .........................

11,505 Chelsea hospital ............... ..............

107,512 2. That the expences of the Navy, Half-pay ...................

97,575 Army, and Ordnance for the year 1775, |

Reduced horse-guards......................

850 Pensions to widows ............

608 exceeded the peace establishment, in a

Augmentation of land forces............ 89,063 sum not less than 1,783,225l. under the

Ditto......................."

15,072 following heads :

Ditto ............................ ..............

80,934

Ditto... ..................................... 7,938 Seamen 18,000, at 521. per ann. per

Dilto..............................................

137,418 man ........................................ 936,000 Highlanders, 2 batt. ..................... 47,400 Ordinary .....................:

444.6800 Hanoverians, 1776 ......................... 46,838 Ship-building, and Greenwich hospital 303,379 | Hessians ................

381,857 Increase of Navy debt...... ....... 812,479 | Ditto artillery ............................ 13,973

Ditto levy money ..................

4,944 Total of Navy Expence...... 2,496,538 Hanau regiment .............................

19,006
Artillery of ditto ............................ 3,383
ARMY.
Brunswickers .................................. .

121,475 Guards and garrisons ........

627,689 1 regiment of Waldeck ................... 16,433 Forces in the plantations........... 386,186 Extraordinaries incurred 1776, and, Difference of pay at Minorca and Gib

voted 1777 ....

...... 1,200,60% raltar ........,

2,874 Generals and staff ..

11,473

Total of Army Expeace...... 3,829,008 Chelsea hospital ....

'122,221 Half-pay ..........

105,326

ORDNANCE. Reduced horse-guards............

Ordinary ...........

249,655 Widows

628 Extraordinaries .......... ....... 272,705 Augmentation of 4,383 men, land forces 67,706 Difference of British and Irish pay for

Total of Ordnance Expence...... 599,360 dragoons ............. 9,536 Vote of Credit.....

1,000,000 Hanoverians voted 1776, for service of

4,153,914 1775 ...

26,783

Aruny

3,829,008 Extraordinaries voted 1776, incurred

Ordnance

592,360 845,165

Total Navy, Army, and Ordnance ex-
Total of Army Expence...... 2,206,457 pence ........ .................... 9,504,589

Deduct the peace establishment......... 3,371,000
Ordnance.
Ordinary ...........

228,059 The excess of expence in 1776, over Extra, voted 1776, incurred 1775 ...... 223,171 and above the ordinary peace estab

Jishment, was ........................... 6,133,582 Total of Ordnance Expence.. ... 451,230

2,206,457 |

4. That the expences of the Navy, Navy ..................... 2,496,538 | Army, and Ordnance, for the year 1777,

will exceed the peace establishment in a Total Nary, Army, and Ordnance Ex

sum not less than 6,977,9851. under the pences .......

............ 5,154,225

following heads : Deduct the peace establishment......... 3,371,000

Navy.
The excess of expence in the year 1775,

Seamen 45,000, at 52l. per ann. per
man ........

.... 2,340,000 over and above the ordinary peace

Ordinary and Greenwich hospital ...... 405,805 establishment, was ..... ............... 1,783,225

Ship-building .........

..... 465,500 3. That the expences of the Navy, Army, and Ordnance for the year 1776,

Total of Navy Expence (exclusive of exceeded the peace establishment, in a

navy debt) .............................. 3,211,305 sum not less than 6,133,5821. under the

ARMY. following heads :

Guards and garrisons ........

646,009 Navy. Generals and staff .............

11,473 Seamen, 21,000, at 52. per ann, per

Forces in the plantations............ 949,790 man ......

1,456,000 Difference in British and Irish pay...... 47,178 Ordinary ................. 426,904 | Foreign troops .......

571,566 Ship-building .............................. 339,151 | Artillery to ditto ............. 339,151

31,905 Greenwich hospital.............

Half-pay ............

94,371 Increase of Navy debt.. ............... 1,926,159

Chelsea.....

105,979 Widows ..........................

370 Total of Navy Expence...... 4,153,214 | Additional foreign troops............... 96,034 Old German claims.......

41,820

1775......

.......

Army ...........

ORDNANCE.

Total of Army Expence (exclusive of

ORDNANCE. extraordinaries) ........................ 2,597,025 Ordinary ............................. 382,816

Vote of Credit ......

1,000,000 Ordinary ....................................

Navy expence...... 4,005,895 320,111

Army

2,842,557 Extraordinary ....................

300,483

Ordnance

362,816 Total expence for navy, army andTotal of Ordnance ............ 620,594

ordnance ...................

... ...... 8,231,268

From whence deducting the usual peace 'Part of Vote of Credit..................... 793,300

establishment .....

3,371,000 Navy expence.. ... 3,211,305 Army ................ .............. 2,597,025

The excess already voted for 1778, is... 4,860,268 Ordnance .........

620,594

In the above account is not included

the navy debt, nor the extraordina7,222,224

ries of the army and ordnance; those "The increase of the navy debt, and the

three articles, in 1776, when there extraordinaries of the army for this

were 32,000 seamen, and upwards of year, not being as yet laid before

16,000 land forces less than in the parliament, are not included in the

present year, amounted to 3,339,3071. above account. In the year 1776,

And as these expences generally inwhen there were 17,000 seamen, and

crease in some degree of proportion several thousand land forces less than

with the number of men employed, it in 1777, these two articles amounted

is probable they will, for the present to 3,126,7611. If in the present year

year, amount to a sum not less than 4,200,000 they should not exceed that sum...... 3,126,761 The total expence for navy, army, and

Which will make the excess, for the ordnance, will be ........................ 10,348,985

year 1778, amount to.................. 9,060,268 Deduct peace establishment... 3,371,000 Excess of expence in the year 1777,

6. That from the experience of past over and above the ordinary peace

times, that whenever peace shall be reestablishment .............. ........... 6,977,985 | stored, great expences n

stored, great expences must necessarily be

still incurred. That the charge of paying 5. That the expences of the Navy, the troops till they can be brought home, Army, and Ordnance, for the year 1778, and before they can be disbanded, and will exceed the peace establishment, in a particularly the foreign troops, for some sum not less than 4,860,268.. exclusive of which this nation is to pay even for 12 of navy debt, and extraordinaries of army months after they are returned into their and ordnance, and including those arti- own country ; the expence of re-conveycles, in a sum not less than 9 millions. ing our army, artillery and stores, across

the Atlantic, and sending the foreigners NAVY.

to Germany, and the arrears and demands 60,000 seamen, at 521. per ann. per man ............................... ........ 3,120,000

of various sorts, will create an excess of Ordinary of the navy and Greenwich

expence in the years immediately followhospital .................................

................. 397,200 | ing a peace, little short of what it will be Ship-building .............................. 488,695 in the last year of the war. From whence'

it appears, that if peace was this day reTotal Navy Expence, (exclusive of

........... 4,005,895

stored, the cost of the present war would navy debt)....

be as follows:

Excess in 1775 .............
ARMY.

............................ 1,783,225 1776.

........ 6,133,582 Guards and garrisons ........

634,240 Forces in the plantations ..............

960,843

1777, probably upwards of 6,977,985

1778, probably upwards of 9,000,000 Half-pay ..........

90,939 Reduced horse-guards ...........

712

23,894,792, Chelsea hospital ........... ................ 105,431 |

And if peace is not concluded till the Widows .............

238

end of this year, 1778, probably the Generals and staff .......

11,473
further sum of...

.... 9,000,000 Difference of British and Irish pay...... 52,923 Foreign troops......... 652,852

£.32,894,792 Artillery to foreign troops .

27,379 Augmentation of 15,016 British forces 286,632 Ditto of 1,032 British land forces at

The said Resolutions were all negatived. Gibraltar

18,895 Total Army Expence, (exclusive of

Petition from the County of Norfolk to extraordinaries) .......... ............ 2,842,557 the Commons, against raising Men and

Money without Consent of Parliament.]

Feb. 17. A Petition of several of the , inaccessible strength with which America gentlemen, freeholders, and others, of the abounds, has been compelled by neces. county of Norfolk, and of the city of Nor-sity to march back to an open town, wich, was presented to the House, and which they are obliged to fortify for winread: setting forth:

ter quarters at an enormous expence; the " That your petitioners observe, with continent of America is, it seems, to be the utmost concern and surprize, that ex conquered by defeated and defensive ar. traordinary endeavours are used in this mies. It is a project we cannot comprecounty, and in many other parts of the hend. Sixty thousand soldiers, a force of kingdom, to raise men and money for his artillery (if we are to judge by the charge) Majesty's service by free gifts and contri- such as never has been sent out of this butions, not given and granted in a parlia- kingdom, 60,000 seamen voted, more than mentary course, which unusual and strain. / an hundred armed ships employed in this ed efforts (concerning the very legality of special service, an unheard-of expence in which they conceive doubts may justly every sort of military supply, have, after be entertained) while parliament actually three years struggle, brought things to sits, and at a time when his Majesty is in such a state, that, instead of quieting our apparent peace with all the powers in civil troubles, we are threatened with a Europe, strongly indicate some violent foreign war, for which, after such an abun. distemper in the state, to which its ordi- dance (for we cannot call it profusion of nary powers and means of supply are not parliamentary grants increasing daily, and sufficient. We most humbly apprehend, with the most exuberant recruiting funds, that if a war with any of the neighbouring we are called upon to piece-out the definations threatens to break out, nothing ciency of public wealth by private contribucan give more encouragement to it than 1 tions; a nation of such power as this, reduce the taking such measures as tend to prove ed to such a state, must lose its reason and this kingdom to be as much exhausted in its feelings, together withits glory, if it could its strength at the very commencement of acquiesce in its condition. It is not in our foreign hostilities, as it has been at the choice to suppose that it can have hapclose of the longest and most wasteful pened without a fault somewhere : in wars. Your petitioners have been also the generals and armies the fault cannot called upon, in a manner equally alarming, he; if their known and tried characters did by persons of great power and rank in his not forbid all suspicions of them, yet his Majesty's service, to raise men and money | Majesty's most gracious speeches from the for supporting the constitutional autho. throne make it improper for us to entertain rity of Great Britain. We hope and the least doubt of their courage and con. trust that constitutional authority is safe duct; but his Majesty has not forbid us to and well supported in the affections of entertain doubts of the wisdom, care, and a loyal and a free people; we know of prudence of those who conduct his affairs; no attack upon, or resistance to, the ope- and we trist, that the House of Commons, ration of the laws in this county, or in whose duty calls, and whose competence this kingdom. Impaired, as we may be, and constitution enables them to come to in power of reputation abroad, we have the bottom of those evils, will seriously ena however peace at home ; but in the thir, quire into the causes of our present calateen once flourishing and obedient colo- mitous situation, for we greatly fear that nies of Great Britain, his Majesty has we, with the rest of your constituents, no authority or other government to be have been hitherto greatly deceived and supported. A misrepresentation of our deluded, with regard to the nature, the unbappy situation would be a mockery of cause, and the importance of the Ameri, pur distress. An empire is lost. A great can troubles, as well as concerning the continent in arms is to be conquered or means of quieting them, both legal and abandoned. One whole British army of coercive: else we should not have the veteran troops has surrendered prisoners misfortune to see acts of parliament of war to the sudden levies of a new na. i made only to be sent back to be repealtion: another, abandoning a province ed ; armies sent out to inforce them, which had been over-run in the last cam- only to be returned to us as prisonen paign, and after two engagements in the under capitulation; and, to speak with field successful without advantage, bav- the filial confidence of free subjects, we ing marched out to take a view of an plainly declare ourselves unwilling to com, enemy posted in one of those places of mit any more of our natiopal glory to

attaint, and the persons of more of our countrymen to foreign hardships and perils, without any common human security, that they shall not, by the same errors, be exposed to the same calamities and dis

aces which many of those have fallen into who have already been sent forth. Without wise councils at home, we cannot have empire or reputation abroad; it is our duty to our Sovereign, to whose person and illustrious House we have ever borne the most distinguished and zealous attachment, which compels us to lay before this

honourable House this representation of

his affairs; we shall ever be foremost in providing for every reasonable and useful supply for the public service; but we cannot make ourselves the instruments of any faction, or grant money as a test of our support of it; if the colonies can be brought to obedience, we are convinced, by sad experience, it must be by wise and lenient counsels, and by those in whom they have no experience of ill-will or incapacity, the one producing hatred, and the other comtempt; for our domestic protection, we most humbly conceive, that our constitutional militia, which his Majesty has been enabled to call out, is the most effective and least invidious defence; twelve entirely new corps, consisting of 15,000 highlanders of the northern part of the United Kingdom, and of the towns of Manchester and Liverpool, appointed during the sitting, without the previous approbation of parliament, and which can hardly be ready in time for American service, are not, we most humbly submit it to superior wisdom, the defence in which we can or ought, for obvious reasons, to trust, in preference to that more numerous and equally welltrained and well-affected body, the national militia; nor have we been given to understand, at a time when the war establishment stands at comparatively low numbers, and those numbers far from complete, and at a time when the public burthens are so oppressive, for what reason new corps should be raised, or on what grounds: if a compliment was meant (at the expence of our finances, and what we conceive the most serviceable military arrangement) the compliment has been confined to the above mentioned parts of this kingdom. We do therefore with all earnestness and humanity pray an enquiry into the true grounds and conduct of this unhappy civil war, that the best means may be found for bringing it to a speedy termination, for facilitating the restoration of concord and confidence

to all the citizens of the British empire, to avert, if possible, a foreign war, or, if that be not possible, to take due care that rātional, effectual, and becoming provision, in an orderly and parliamentary way, be made for our defence and safety; under the accumulated distress of foreign and civil hostility, we throw ourselves with the most o reliance on the care and wisdom (never more called for than in the present exigency) of a British House of Commons; on them we rest the last hopes of a deserving, but, we fear, an injured, deceived, and endangered people.” [Signed by 5,400 persons.] Ordered to lie on the table.

Debate in the Commons on Lord North’s Conciliatory Propositions.] Lord North, agreeably to his promise, rose to make his Conciliatory Propositions. He began by apologizing for the intended length of his i. but he said it was neces...ary, from the quantity of matter he was obliged to go into, and from the perspicuity and clearness which he intended to make use of, in order to give satisfaction upon every part of the detail. He declared, that from the beginning he had been uniformly disosed to peace. That the coercive Acts which he had made, were such as appeared to be necessary at the time, though in the event they bad produced effects which he never intended. That as soon as he found that they had not the effect which he intended, he proposed a conciliatory proposition before the sword was drawn. That at that time he thought, and that he still thinks, the terms of that proposition would form the happiest, most equitable, and most lasting bond of union between Great Britain and her colonies. That by a variety of discussions, a proposition, that was originally clear and simple in itself, was made to appear so obscure, as to go damned to America; so that the Congress conceived, or took occasion to represent it as a scheme for sowing divisions, and introducing taxation among them in a worse mode than the former, and accordingly rejected it. His idea never had been to draw any considerable revenue either in that way, or any other, from America; his idea was, they should contribute in a very low proportion to the expences of this country. That he had always known that American taxation could never produce a beneficial revenue ; that there were many sorts of taxes that could not at all be laid on that

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