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by the description given of them by sir same proportion as the new levies were John Elliot, in his famous Petition to the raised, the recruiting service, as to the old king from the Gatehouse in 1626* ; that regiments, must be prejudiced. He pare the terms of the Act of the 13th of Charles ticularly lamented, that so vast a propor. 2,prove compulsion, for the words, tion of these new levies were to be raised
supply hereby granted,” are irrecon- in Scotland, because the country must be cileable to any other construction, and are stripped of its most useful hands for agriof themselves decisive of the question ; for culture and commerce. if the money thereby raised was purely Lord North contended, that the present spontaneous on the part of the people, subscriptions were no more than had been the Commons in parliament, in such case, practised in all times of public emergency, granted nothing; nor was the King sure particularly in 1745, and in 1759, in Mr. of receiving a single farthing under such Pitt's administration, when the new levies act of parliament.
were raised by private subscription; and | Governor Johnstone contended for the the subscribers, instead of being treated illegality of the subscription ; expatiated as violators of the law, were publicly and on the injustice the old officers must sus- solemnly thanked by the then minister, tain, by having so many young ones put lord Chatham, and applauded by the pubover their heads; and said that in the lic. He averred, that no influence what.
ever had been used, but that the offers all * See Vol. 2, p. 208.
or any other place, the payment thereof shall + This Act not being amongst the printed | be likewise returned together with the same, Statutes, the following copy thereof, signed provided that no process shall issue out of the by the clerk of the parliaments, was delivered exchequer against any person so subscribing in, and read at the table :
but within two years next after the passing of
this act. “ An Act for a Free and Voluntary Present to said service, the said commissioners of the
And for the better execution of the his Majesty :
counties, citties, townes corporate, and all other • Wee your Majesties most loyal and obe places aforesaid respectively, shall, and are heredient subjects, the Lords and Commons in Par- by enjoined, with all convenient speed, after tbe liament assembled, taking into consideration issuing out and receite of the said respective your Majesty's great and important occasions commissions, to meet together at the most for a speedy supply of monies, which can noe usual and common place of meeting, within waies be so reddylý raised as by a free and vo- each of the said countys, cities, towns corpoJuntary present to your Majesty from those rate, and all other places; and the said comwho are able and willing to aide your Majesty missioners, or so many of them as shall be prein this suddaine exigency, as a testimony of sent at the said first general meeting, or the their affections to your Majesty, and in ease of major part of them, may, by them, by their the poorer sort of your subjects, doe therefore consents and agreements, sever themselves into beseech your Majesty, that it may be enacted, bundreds, rapes, wapentakes, wardes, and and be it enacted by the King's most excellent other places within their respective limitts, Majesty, by and with the advice and consent in such manner and forme as to them shali of the Lords and Commons in this present Par- seeme expedient; and shall likewise, from liament assembled, and by the authority of the tyme to tyme, give notice of the respective same, that your Majesty may issue out such tymes and places of their meetings; to the and so many several commissions under your end that any persons, bodies politic or corpo. Majesty's Great Seal of England, into the se- rate, may, if they please, resort to them, and veral counties, cities, towns corporate, and all make such offers or present to your Majesty otber places in England and Wales, and town as their own hearts shall prompt them to. of Berwick upon Tweed, directed to such per- “ Provided alwaies, that no person, not being sons as your Majesty sball think fit, for the re- a Peere of this realme, shall, in such offer or ceiving of such subscriptions as your Majesty's present to your Majestie, exceed the sume of good subjects sball voluntarily offer for supply 2001. por any Peere of this realme the sume of of your Majesty's pressing occasions; and 4001. Provided also, that no commissions, to likewise to issue such other commissions to be issued out by virtue of this act, shall be of such other persons as your Majesty sball think force, or continue, as to the receiving of any fitt, for collecting and receiving the monies so monies, or subscriptions for monies, after the subscribed, the acquittances of which respective feast of St. John the Baptist, which shall be in receivers, or of any one of them, are imme- the year of our Lord 1662. Aud bee it hereby diately to be made, and given without any fee, declared, that no commissions or aides of this upon payment made, and shall be an absolute nature can be issued out, or levied, but by au. discharge for the sume so described ; and in thority of parliament; that this act, and the ease such subscriptions' shall, upon any occa- supply hereby granted, shall not be drawne into sion, be returned into the court of Exchequer, example for the ty me to come.”
came as the spontaneous and generous ef- | because the more that hon. gentleman fusions of love and loyalty to the King, abused him, the better he thought of him. and as a testimony of their zeal to support self; that the effusions of his eloquence the legislature of Great Britain against the were incapable of the guilt of slander; cebellion in America.
they were, on the contrary, satisfactory Sir W. Meredith replied to lord North, and reputable. that it was unjust to give any sanction The Resolution of the Committee was to his own administration, at the expence then agreed to. of the reputation of another; that lord Chatham's conduct, which he represented Debate on Mr. Burke's Motion relative to be the same as his own, was nothing to the Military Employment of Indians in like it; that the subscriptions then were the Civil War with America.] Feb. 6. to raise recruits for old regiments which Mr. Burke moved, " That an humble had suffered in the wars; which had been Address be presented to his Majesty, that raised under the authority of parliament, he will be graciously pleased to give diapproved, voted, and for a long time paid rections, that there be laid before this by parliament: whereas, in the present House, Copies of all Papers that have case, both the money had been levied, passed between any of his Majesty's miand the troops raised, during the sitting nisters, and the generals of his armies in of parliament, without the consent, know- America, or any person acting for governledge, or any communication with parlia. ment in Indian affairs, relative to the Mi. ment whatever; that the precedent for his litary Employment of the Indians of Amelordship's conduct might be drawn with rica, in the present Civil War, from the more correctness from that of James the 1st of March 1774, to the 1st of January 2nd, who, on the duke of Monmouth's 1778."* landing in the West, had adjourned the Mr. Burke began by observing, that one parliament, for the very purpose of levy of the grand objects of the enquiry into ing the troops himself, without the inter- the State of the Nation, was the conduct ference of parliament, in order to chuse and quality of the troops employed in such as were most attached to his person, America. That an account of the King's and most likely to serve his purposes. He regular forces, and those of his European then went through the history of all bene- allies, were already before them. That volences, from the reign of Edward the hitherto no account had appeared of his 4th, to the present time; that they had irregular forces, particularly those of his been suppressed by two acts of parliament, savage allies; although great dependance which are now in force, and had been had been placed upon them, and they had treated as unconstitutional always, parti- been obtained at a very great expence. cularly in the reign of James the 1st, That it was necessary to examine into this when the king attempted to raise a sub- point; because an extension of their mode scription in a manner exactly similar to of making war had lately been strenuously the present; namely, by sending certain recommended. The prevailing idea was, of his confidential servants to different that, in the next campaign, the plans hiparts of the kingdom to raise spontaneous therto pursued were to be abandoned ; and voluntary subscriptions, unaccom
and a war of distress and intimidation was panied with any circumstance of force whatever. Mr. St. John, who was es
* Strangers were excluded during this deteemed the best constitutional lawyer in and a half. Many gave the Speech a prefe
bate. Mr. Burke spoke for nearly three hours the kingdom, and afterwards lord chief rence to any other he had ever spoken. Injastice, opposed those subscriptions with deed, this applause was carried to such a pitch, great vehemence, and declared, that the that while one gentleman, io his place, wished attempt to get money for the king's use it to be printed, and affixed to all the church in that way, was a breach of his majesty's doors which contained the proclamation for a coronation oath, and an abetting of per- gratulated ihe ministers upon admitting no
general fast, a member of great distioction conjury, in all those who subscribed.* Mr. Gascoygne was entering into some
strangers on that day into the gallery, as the
indignation of the people miglit have been personal invective against sir W. Meredith, excited against them to a degree that would but the Speaker stopped him, which sir have endangered their safety. !t is to be reWilliam, in reply, said he was sorry for ; gretted, that a full report of this Speech was
never preserved. See Annual Register for + See Howell's State Trials, vol. 2, p. 900. 1778, p. 110,
to take place of a war of conquest, which were accordingly under an inevitable newas now found to be impracticable. cessity, not only of cultivating their friend
He said, that this mode of war had al ship, and forming alliances with them, but ready been tried upon a large scale, and of admitting them as parties in their conthat the success which had hitherto at- tests and wars with each other; the affairs tended it would afford the best evidence of both nations were so inextricably enhow far it might be proper to extend it to tangled with those of the people who had all our troops, and to all our operations. sold or given them lands, and admitted That if it did not promise to be very de- them to a share of their country, that cisive as a plan merely military, it could they could not be separated; their conbe attended with no collateral advantages, tracts on both sides created a mutual intewhether considered with respect to our rest ; and while the savages retained any reputation, as a civilized people, or to our degree of their original power, they could policy, in regard to the means of recon- not be indifferent to the disputes that ciling the minds of the colonies to his Ma- arose among their new neighbours. jesty's government.
But the case was now totally altered. He then stated what the nature of a The English colonists were the only Eurowar, in which Indians were the actors peans in North America ; and the savages against a civilized people, was; and ob- were so entirely reduced in number and served, that the fault of employing them power, that there was no occasion for did not consist in their being of one colour holding any political connection with them or another; in their using one kind of as nations. They were now only formidaweapon or another ; but in their way of ble from their cruelty; and to employ making war ; which was so horrible, that them was merely to be cruel ourselves in it not only shocked the manners of all ci- their persons: and thus, without even the vilized nations, but far exceeded the fe- lure of any essential service, to become rocity of any other barbarians that have chargeable with all the odious and impobeen recorded either by ancient or modern tent barbarities, which they would inevi. history. He observed, that the Indians tably commit, whenever they were called in North America had but two principal into action. objects in their wars ; the one was the in- Mr. Burke then proceeded to examine dulgence of their native cruelty, by the the arguments or apologies that had been destruction, or, if possible, the extermina- used by ministers, in defence or alleviation tion of their enemies; the other, which of the measure. These he arranged always depended on the former, was the under three heads, the first and principal glory of acquiring the greatest number of of which was contained in the assertion, human scalps, which were hung up and " That if his Majesty had not employed preserved with the greatest care in their them, the rebels' would.” To this he huts, as perpetual trophies of victory, answered, that no proof whatever had been conquest, and personal prowess. As they given of the Americans having attempted had neither pecuniary emoluments, nor an offensive alliance with any one tribe of those honorary titles or distinctions, which savage Indians. Whereas the imperfect are so fattering in civilized nations, to papers already before the House demonbestow, the rewards of danger and war- strated, that the King's ministers had nefare consisted in human scalps, in human gociated and obtained such alliances from flesh, and the gratifications arising from one end of the continent of America to torturing, mangling, roasting alive by slow the other. That the Americans had fires, and frequently even devouring their actually made a treaty on the footing of captives. Such were the rewards of In- neutrality with the famous Five Nations, dian warriors, and such the horrors of an which the ministers had bribed them to Indian war.
violate, and to act offensively against the He then proceeded to shew, that the colonies. That no attempt had been made employment of the savages in the wars in a single instance on the part of the between the French and the English, did King's ministers to procure a neutrality; not in any degree come up to the mea- and, that if the fact had been (what he sure in question, nor did it stand on the denied it to be) that the Americans had same principles. When those nations first actually employed those savages, yet the made settleinents in North America, the difference of employing them against Indian tribes were, comparatively, numer- armed and trained soldiers, embodied and ous and powerful states ; the new settlers encamped, and employing them against the unarmed and defenceless men, women, mains of that people now lived in a state and children, of a country, widely dis- of servitude to the Carolinians. persed in their habitations, was manifest ; He then stated the monstrous expence, and left those who attempted so inhuman as well as the inefficacy, of that kind of and unequal a retaliation without a possi- ally; and the unfortunate consequences bility of excuse.
that had attended their employment. The other heads of defence were, That one Indian soldier cost as much as “ That great care had been taken to pre- five of the best regular or irregular Eurovent that indiscriminate murder of men, pean troops. That the expence of these women, and children, which was cus- Indians had not been less than 150,0001. tomary with the savages ;” and “ that and yet there never had been more than they were always accompanied by disci- seven or eight hundred of them in the field, plined troops to prevent their irregula- and that only for a very short time. So rities." On these he observed, that if the that it appeared as if our ministers thought, fact had been true, the service of the that inhumanity and murder could not be savages would have been a jest; their em- purchased at too dear a rate. He shewed ployment could have answered no purpose; that this ally was not less faithless than intheir only effective use consisted in that efficacious and cruel. That on the least cruelty which was to be restrained; but appearance of ill success, they not only he shewed, that it was so utterly impossi- abandoned their friends, but frequently ble for any care or humanity to prevent or turned their arms upon them. And he even restrain their enormities, that the attributed the fatal catastrophe at Saratoga very attempt was ridiculous: in proof of to the cruelties exercised by these barbawhich, both the present and former wars rians, which obliged all mankind, without afforded numerous instances; and it par- regard to party, or to political principles, ticularly appeared, both in general Bur- and in despite of military indisposition, to goyne's and colonel St. Leger's expedi- become soldiers, and to unite as one man tions, that, although no pains were nego in the common defence. Thus was the lected to check their barbarity, they in- spectacle exhibited of a resistless army discriminately murdered men, women, and springing up in the woods and deserts. children, friends and foes, without distinc- He also passed some severe strictures tion; and that even the slaughter fell on the endeavours in two of the southern mostly upon those who were best affected colonies to excite an insurrection of the to the King's government, and who, upon negro-slaves against their masters. He that account, had been lately disarmed by insisted that the proclamation for that purthe Provincials. The murder of Miss pose was directly contrary to the common M.Rea, on the morning of her intended and statute law of this country, as well as marriage with an officer of the King's to the general law of nations. He stated, troops, and the massacre in cold blood of in strong colours, the nature of an insurthe prisoners who had been taken in the rection of negroes; the horrible conseengagement with general Harkemer, only quences that might ensue from constitutneeded to be mentioned to excite horror, ing 100,000 fierce barbarian slaves, ty be and at the same time to shew the imprac. both the judges and executioners of their ticability of restraining the barbarities of masters ; and appealed to all those who
were acquainted either with the West With respect to the latter of the fore- India islands or the southern colonies, as going positions, “ That the savages had to the murders, rapes, and horrid enormialways been accompanied with regular ties of every kind, which had ever been troops,” Mr. Burke gave it a direct con- acknowledged to be the principal objects tradiction. He shewed, that whole nations in the contemplation of all negroes who of savages had been bribed to take up the had meditated an insurrection. The vi. hatchet, without a single regular officer or gour and care of the white inhabitants in soldier amongst them. This had been Virginia and Maryland had providentially particularly the case of the Cherokees, kept down the insurrection of the negroes. who were bribed and betrayed into war, But if they had succeeded, he asked what under the promise of being assisted by a means were proposed for governing those large regular force; they had accordingly negroes, when they had reduced the proinvaded Carolina in their usual manner, vince to their obedience, and made thembut for want of the promised support, selves masters of the houses, goods, wives, were nearly exterminated ; and the re- and daughters of their murdered lords
Another war must be made with them, were employed by government to create and another massacre ensue; adding con- and preserve alliances among the Indian fusion to confusion, and destruction to de- nations; and finally, that the House every struction,
session approved of, and recognized those The result was, that our national honour alliances and treaties, by voting specific had been deeply wounded, and our cha- sums of money, to be paid into the hands racter as a people debased in the estima- of the superintendant, to be laid out in tion of foreigners, by those shameful, sa- presents, and distributed among the leadvage, and servile alliances, and their bar. ing warriors and chiefs. barous consequences.
That instead of Sir Alexander Leith was severe on lord any military effect of value, they had only George Germain, who, he said, was the led to defeat, ruin, and disgrace; serving sole author and contriver of those barto embitter the minds of all men, and to barous measures. He was astonished that unite and arm all the colonies against us. the noble lord, considering several circumThat the ineffective attempt upon the ne. stances which he abstained from mentiongroes was the grand cause of that greater ing, could presume to intrude himself into aversion and resentment, which appeared an office he was unqualified to fill; and he in the southern, than in many of the cen- was still much more astonished that he tral and northern colonies; of their being dare continue in it, when his own expethe first to abjure the King; and of the rience must have long since convinced declaration made by Virginia, that if the him, that he was totally unworthy of it. rest should submit, they would notwith Every single measure he had recommend. standing hold out singly to the last extre- ed himself, or adopted from others, exmity: for what security could they re hibited so many proofs of his incapacity; ceive, that, if they admitted an English and when his conduct was brought to the governor, he would not raise their negroes test, he affirmed, that the noble lord would on them, whenever he thought it good to be found in every respect, unequal to the construe any occasional disturbances into high office, which he supposed he had a rebellion, and to adopt martial law as a usurped. Here he was called to order by system of government ?
the Chair. He concluded, that the only remedy Lord George Germain said, he could for the alienation of affections, and the never sit silent, and hear such unbecoming distrust and terror of our government, personalities made to his face. He begged which had been brought on by these in- leave to assure the bon. gentleman, if they human measures, was for parliament to were sincere, they must have arisen from enquire seriously and strictly into them; prejudice, and were ill founded. He was and, by the most marked and public dis- an old member of that House; and he approbation, to convince the world that defied any gentleman to say, that he had they had no share in practices which were ever used personalities himself. He al. not more disgracefulto a great and civilized ways carefully abstained from them; and nation, than they were contrary to all true whatever his provocations to retort might policy, and repugnant to all the feelings be on the present occasion, he should give of humanity. For that it was not in human one more proof of the same mode of connature for any people to place a confi- ducting himself. He wished sincerely dence in those to whom they attributed that his conduct might be fully and immesuch unparalleled sufferings and miseries ; diately enquired into. He was certain it and the colonies would never be brought would turn out to his honour; but until to believe, that those who were capable that event took place, he thought it was of carrying on a war in so cruel and dis- both unparliamentary and uncandid to honourable a manner, could be depended make personal attacks upon him, which he on for a sound, equitable, and cordial should always, in future, look upon as peace; much less that they could be safe- meant to prejudice that House against ly entrusted with power and dominion.. him. His lordship then spoke shortly to
Mr. Serj. Adair seconded the motion. the question, and justified the conduct of Mr. De Grey spoke in defence of em- administration. He said the matter lay ploying the savages; said, that Indian trea- within a very narrow compass; the Inties had been made during the last war; dians would not have remained idle specthat they had been continued, from time tators; the very arguments used by the to time, down to the present hour ; that hon. mover were so many proofs that they it was well known that superintendants would not, besides, the rebels, by their