land after the sums given to it! Nor care but the embargo and the deplorable state I whether it is the noble lord or not; but of the navy, were surely reasons sufficiently so it is, there has been mismanagement, cogent to prevent a prorogation. The misconduct, negligence and ignorance in complement of men on board our fleets this great and essential department; and was 10,000 short of the establishment: were we to sit longer here, I pledge my, such a deficiency was truly alarming, and self, some how or other, to sift it out. required the utmost attention of parlia

The House divided : Contents 20, Not- ment. contents 42,

The Hon. Richard Fitzpatrick declared

that he would have remained silent, if the Debate on Sir James Lowther's Motion noble lord in his eye had thought proper for an Address to the King to defer the to lay before the House the intelligence Prorogation of Parliament.] June 2. Sir he had received from America: but as his

James Lowther adverted to the critical lordship had declined that, he thought it situation of public affairs, when the wis- his duty to give the House such informadom of parliament would be highly neces- tion, as, from his situation, he was enabled sary; and when consequently it would, to to collect. About ten days before he the last degree, be improper to put an end sailed from Philadelphia, a copy of the to the session : wisdom was to be expected Conciliatory Bills had been brought to that from a multitude of counsellors; it would city: their reception was such as they debe therefore most advantageous to the served. The army received them with the kingdom that the parliament might be per- most inexpressible indignation ; some of mitted to continue sitting. For these rea- the officers had in his presence torn their sons he moved, That an humble Ad- cockades from their hats and fluog them dress be presented to his Majesty, to re. into the streets. They bad been deluded present to his Majesty the very alarming so far as to imbibe the ministerial spirit state of these kingdoms, which will be for war; and when they looked for reinmuch increased by a prorogation of par- forcements, and expected 20,000 men to liament, whereby his Majesty would be de- enable them to open the campaign with prived of that natural and constitutional ad- some signal avd decisive blow, a set of vice and assistance which may be so neces- Bills were sent out to them, which loaded sary at this critical conjuncture, when the them with disgrace. These Bills were not whole legislative authority, and the united transmitted to the Congress nor to general wisdom of the kingdom, is absolutely es. Washington; they were dispersed through sential to secure us from impending dan the country by individuals, and through ger; and most humbly to implore his Ma- them found their way at length into the jesty, that he would be graciously pleased American army. Their reception there to defer the prorogation of parliament un- was still worse than in the British army: til the present dangerous crisis may be they were kicked about, torn, nay, burned happily terminated."

by the hands of the common hangman. Sir P, J, Clerke seconded the motion, on They were looked upon as calculated to the general ground of necessity. He said, spread discord through the country, and the nation was in imminent danger, for that idea tended more to rivet them more that he had been informed, since he came closely than to disunite them. Some offiinto the House, that the Brest fleet had cers in general Washington's confidence, been seen within a few leagues of Ply with whom he had had an opportunity to mouth, He said he was more particularly converse, told him, that it was the opinion for the motion from the old adage, that among their people that these drafts of “ in the multitude of counsellors there is Bills were nothing more than a pretence safety."

to amuse the Americans, and dispose them Earl Nugent said, he fancied, that if to desert the Congress; and that the pareven the motion was carried, the last liament knew nothing of them, when he speaker would be disappointed in his had assured them that it was really the inhopes, as he believed very few counsellors tention of parliament to pass these Bille would remain in town. He moved the into laws, and to send out new commisother orders of the day.

sioners; they said, that if such proposals Mr, T. Luttrell said, that many were had been made to them by lord Chatham the reasons that could be adduced to shew they would have probably received them; the necessity of keeping the parliament but that they never could listen to terme together; it were needless to repeat them; proposed by the men who had brought or the war. On his arrival in England he must destroy both lord and general Howe's had formed a resolution not to be asto- forces; which were now so few in number, nished at any thing the ministry could do; that they could act only on the defensive, for after the sample they had given him, He complained of the scandalous manner in he saw they were capable of the greatest which sir William Howe was abused here, extravagancies; but when he found the while he was beloved, respected, nay situation we were in with regard to France; adored by the whole army in America. when he found that a gallant general was General Burgoyne said, he had more treated in the most unbecoming manner, causes than one to complain; but he did he was, in spite of his resolution, perfectly not wish to take up the time of the House astonished. He felt as a soldier for the with his personal affairs. When he arrived situation of that brave officer ; he felt the in town, he waited on the noble lord; and utmost indignation against those who could entered into a long conversation with him, so disgrace the military profession as to in which he unbosomed himself to him as treat a soldier who had fought their bat- one friend would to another: at the end tles, in a manner so disgraceful to a sol- of it, to his great surprise, he was informed dier. He had discovered the dawning of that a court of enquiry had been appointed a spirit among the people, which he hoped to enquire into his conduct, and that he would soon blaze forth, and make minis-should absent himself from court till after ters feel that they have acted wrong. that enquiry: he declared that he could

Lord George Germain said he would not not have been more astonished if the attempt to contradict any thing the hon. noble lord had pulled a dagger from his gentleman had advanced from his own pocket to strike him with: an enquiry he knowledge; but he would certainly set wished for most earnestly. But his idea him right in what he delivered as conjec- led to a court-martial; and he did not tures : for there he was better informed. expect that the business would have been There had been no promise made to the carried on in such a manner. The general army in America to send out 20,000 men then adverted to the desertions from the to reinforce them this campaign. If the northern army; and desired to know if hon. gentleman informed the House that any steps had been taken to release that the drafts of the Bills had been received gallant army, which, without disparagewith contempt by the Americans, he also ment, would be equal to twice their informed them, that if they had been number in the field; from having been planned by other men, they would have accustomed to hardships, lying without been received: it was not therefore the tents, living on slender meals, and being measures but the men that America ob well used to fire. He complained that jected te: if they had no other objection, officers well acquainted with the whole it would be a very easy matter to make business of the expedition, had never been peace. If they should reject the terms as examined by the noble lord relative to it; not making sufficient concessions, it would whilst runaways and fugitives, with M. St. then appear that they were not disposed to Luc at their head, were questioned and treat upon any terms; and then he should caressed; nay, while a menial servant of be sorry that the Bills had ever been sent his own, who had been turned out of his out. With regard to the general alluded family, was heard with attention. to, he did not understand that he bad Lord George Germain was of opinion, mentioned any cause of coinplaint but one, that the declaration of the Congress reand that was, that he had been prevented lative to the convention, was well worthy from going into the royal presence: and the most serious consideration: no one that was a hardship which he felt in com- wished more heartily for the release of the mon with every officer whose conduct re- army than he did; but the utmost cirquired an enquiry.

cumspection was necessary, With regard Mr. Fitzpatrick did not mean to charge to the general he did not think he dethe noble lord with having made a promise served such severe censure; he had at to send out 20,000 men ; but this he would night received a letter by colonel Jen. say, that reinforcements were promised; kinson from him, informing him that he that the new levies had been destined for was in town ; not knowing what to do on America; and when the army there the occasion, he sent the letter to the King, should expect to see them arrive, their from whom it was returned to him tlie longing eyes were to be saluted by count next day, with an intimation that it had d'Estaing's fleet, which' in all probability been settled that a court of enquiry should


sit upon him, and that he should not in the The Speaker of the House of Commons, mean time appear at court. That was all on presenting the Money Bills, addressed he knew of the affair. He had not thought his Majesty in substance as follows: it necessary to call upon such of the offi- “ That, at this time of public alarm, his cers as were in England for information, faithful Commons were happy to find that when he had received such circumstantial his Majesty had called out the constituaccounts from the general's own public tional force of the kingdom for its deand private letters. He never gave encou- fence; that they hoped his Majesty would ragement to any one who wished to de- in consequence be enabled to employ his fame the general. There had been one other forces on essential services without who announced himself as an officer, who the realm; that as they had liberally said he had been ill-treated by general granted supplies to the fullest wishes of Burgoyne; and that he wanted to lodge his servants, they trusted his Majesty a formal complaint against him; and yet would make such use of the money as though several persons spoke well of that was most likely to preserve the honour man, still he never would and never did and dignity of his crown, and promote the consent to see him, because he thought it welfare and interest of his dominions ; would have been indecent.

finally, that they heartily wished for a Mr. Fox entered largely into the argu- speedy return of the Americans to their ments which he thought most forcibly allegiance, and did not doubt but in due proved the inexpediency of a prorogation time his Majesty would be able to chastise at the present juncture: he condemned and repress the insolence of his natural the manner in which the drafts of the enemies.” Conciliatory Bills had been introduced among the Americans; ridiculed the idea The King's Speech at the Close of the of expecting that America would treat Session.] His Majesty closed the Seswith us, while the King on his birth-day sion with the following Speech to both bestowed in the most solemn manner cinque Houses : ports and blue ribbons as marks of appro- My Lords, and Gentlemen ; bation on those very men, who had plunged After so long and laborious an applithe colonies and the mother country into cation to the public business, I think it the war. He shewed the inconsistency of proper at this season of the year to give the Tories, who in New York on the 30th you some recess : I come at the same time of November last, St. Andrew's day, had to return you my particular thanks, for pulled down the statue of lord Chatham; the zeal you have shewn in supporting the and now trophies and statues were to be honour of my crown, and for your attenerected to his memory. They hated him tion to the real interests of all my subliving and revered him dead; and were jects, in the wise, just and humane laws somewhat like the emperor of Germany, which have been the result of your deli. , who seeing a sumptuous monument which berations, and which, I hope, will be athad been raised over his rival in the empire, tended with the most salutary effects in wished that all his enemies were as every part of the British empire. sumptuously interred.

“My desire to preserve the tranquillity The question being put, that the order of Europe has been uniform and sincere ; of the day be now read, the House di. I reflect with great satisfaction, that I vided :

have made the faith of treaties and the Tellers.

law of nations the rule of my conduct;

and that it has been my constant care to Lord Westcote

:} 94

give no just cause of offence to any fo

reign power ; let that power by whom this Sir James Lowther

:} 54 tranquillity shall be disturbed, answer to

their subjects and to the world, for all the So it was resolved in the affirmative : fatal consequences of war. Sir J. Lowther's motion was consequently “ The vigour and firmness of my parlost.

liament have enabled me to be prepared

for such events and emergencies as may Mr. Speaker Norton's Speech to the happen; and I trust that the experienced King on presenting the Money Bills.] valour and discipline of my feets and June 3. The King came to the House armies, and the loyal and united ardour of of Peers to put an end to the Session, the nation, armed and animated in the des

Yeas {Earl of Lisburne

Noes { Sir P. J. Clerke

fence of every thing that is dear to them, | forborne to disturb the public tranquillity, will be able, under the protection of Di- in violation of the faith of treaties, and vine Providence, to defeat all the enter- the general rights of sovereigos; at first, prizes which the enemies of my crown by the clandestine supply of arms, and may presume to undertake, and convince other aid to my revolted subjects in North them how dangerous it is to provoke the America ; afterwards, by avowing openly spirit and strength of Great Britain. their support, and entering into formal

“ Gentlemen of the House of Commons; engagements with the leaders of the re

“ I thank you for the cheerfulness with bellion, and at length by committing open which you have granted the large and hostilities and depredations on my faithful ample supplies for the service of the cur- subjects, and by an actual invasion of my rent year, and for your care in raising dominions in America and the West them in a manner the most effectual, and Indies. the least burthensonie; and my warmest “ It is, I trust, unnecessary for me to acknowledgments are due to you for the assure you, that the same care and conprovision you have enabled me to make cern for the happiness of my people, for the more honourable support of my which induced me to endeavour to prefamily.

vent the calamities of war, will make me • My Lords, and Gentlemen ; desirous to see a restoration of the bless“ Your presence in your respective ings of peace, whenever it can be effected counties may at this time be of great with perfect honour, and with security to public advantage; it is unnecessary for the rights of this country, me to recommend to you to do your duty “ In the mean time, I have not neg. in your several stations ; on my part, 1 lected to take the proper and necessary have no other wish or object but to de- measures for disappointing the malignant serve the confidence of my parliament, designs of our enemies, and also for make and the affections of my people."

ing general reprisals; and although my

efforts have not been attended with all the The Parliament was then prorogued to success, which the justice of our cause the 14th of July; and was afterwards fur- and the vigour of our exertions seemed to ther prorogued to the 26th of November.* promise, yet the extensive commerce of

my subjects has been protected in most of

its branches, and large reprisals have been FIFTH SESSION

made upon the injurious aggressors, by the vigilance of my fleets, and by the

active and enterprizing spirit of my people. FOURTEENTH PARLIAMENT

“ The great armaments of other

powers, however friendly and sincere their proGREAT BRITAIN.

fessions, however just and honourable

their purposes, must necessarily engage The King's Speech on Opening the Ses- our attention, sion.] November 26, 1778. His Ma.

" It would have afforded me very great jesty came to the House of Peers, and satisfaction to have informed

you, that the opened the Session with the following conciliatory measures planned by the Speech to both Houses :

wisdom and temper of parliament, had

taken the desired effect, and brought the “ My Lords and Gentlemen ;

troubles in North America to a happy “ I have called you together in a con

conclusion. juncture which demands your most serious

“ In this situation of affairs, the naattention.

“ In the time of profound peace, with- tional honour and security call'so loudly out pretence of provocation or colour of upon us for the most active exertions, that complaint, the court of France hath not

I cannot doubt of your heartiest concur

rence and support. From the vigour of ward Thurlow, esq. Attorney General

, was and land, I hope, under the blessing of • Immediately after the prorogation, Ed- your councils, and the conduct and in

trepidity of my officers and forces by sea , Chancellor, in the room of earl Bathurst. God, to derive the means of vindicating Alexander Wedderburn, esq. was appointed and maintaining the honour of my crown, Attorney General, and James Wallace, esq. and the interests of my people, against all Solicitor General,

our enemies.



“Gentlemen of the House of Commons; | feating the designs of our enemies. The

“ I will order the proper estimates for present crisis, he acknowledged, was crithe service of the ensuing year to be laid tical, and in some respect, alarming. before you ; and when you consider the France and America were connected in importance of the objects for which we the most unnatural alliance ; other powers are contending, you will, I doubt not, might interfere; the most solemn asgrant me such supplies as you shall judge surances of friendship and neutrality were necessary for the public service, and ade- not wanting, but it was prudent to be prequate to the present emergency.

pared for the worst that might hanpen; in “My Lords and Gentlemen ; either event, however, nothing but the “ I have, according to the powers vested most vigorous exertions could pronise to in me for that purpose, called forth the free us from our present perilous situation. militia to assist in the interior defence of He observed, that although the vigorous this country; and I have with the greatest efforts made in the course of the last camand truest satisfaction, been myself a wit-paign were not correspondent to the public ness of that public spirit, that steady ar- expectation, our commerce had been prodour, and that love of their country, which tected, and very considerable reprisals had animate and unite all ranks of my faithful | been made on the enemy in sight of their subjects, and which cannot fail of making own coasts, by which they were sorely us safe at home and respected abroad." distressed, and the captors and the nation

proportionably enriched. He returned to Debate in the Lords on the Address of consider the conduct of America, and Thanks.] His Majesty having retired, said, that the people of that country hav

The Duke of Chandos rose and moved an ing obstinately refused the late offers made Address of Thanks. His grace began with them by the British parliament, he trusted siating the many public and private virtues the people of this country would unite, and of the sovereign, and the obstinacy, base- no longer consider the revolted colonies ness and ingratitude of his rebellious sub-as struggling for the privileges of British jects in America ; a prince, who had made subjects. but as a sovereign independent the constitution the rule of his govern- state, leagued with a foreign enemy, for ment, and the happiness and prosperity of our destruction. Measures of force were, his people the leading objects of his life. therefore, become necessary, measures History furnished no example of the kind; calculated to defeat and dissolve so unnathat in a time of profound peace, without tural alliance, whatever appearances might pretence of provocation, the court of in some particulars indicate to the conFrance, contrary to the faith of treaties, trary; but that the spirit and resources of had not only entered into engagements this country were vet fully equal to the with the leaders of rebellion in America, chastisement of both our declared foes and but had committed hostilities on the faith- rebellious subjects. ful subjects, and had actually invaded The Earl of Plymouth confessed that the dominions of the British crown in the present was a most inauspicious period, America and the West Indies. He took and called pressingly for the instant aid of a retrospective view of the repeated as- every heart and hand in the kingdom to surances of amity and sincerity given by ward off the blow, now meditating against that perfidious court, while they were se- us. He professed himself entirely of opicretly encouraging and assisting rebels in nion of the noble duke, that nothing but arms against their lawful sovereign, until the most decisive measures would answer the moment arrived, that they imagined any good end. The enemies of this counthey could, from the embroiled situation try must feel its resentments in acts of of our affairs, publicly avow that perfidy. power and hostility before peace could be This circumstance, joined to the conse- restored upon a safe or honourable footquences which were justly to be dreaded, ing. Any concession on our part must be if not timely guarded against, would, he fatal: our commerce and manufactures, trusted, be sufficient to produce unanimity which were the great sources of our wealth among their lordships and the nation at and national power, must be ruined, if large ; and create a proper sense of the America was relinquished. He lived in a injuries attempted to be put upon it, and great manufacturing county, (Worcesterof the wound which its honour had re- shire) where he was a daily witness to the ceived. He said, vigorous measures were distresses of both the manufacturers and the only sure and honourable means of de- of those whom they employed. The manu

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