If thou be rich, it will give thee pleasure in health, comfort in sickness, keep thy mind and body free, save thee from many perils, relieve thee in thy elder years, relieve the poor and thy honest friends, and give means to thy posterity to live and defend themselves and thine own fame. Whereas, it is said in the proverbs, “ That he shall to be sore vexed that is surety for a stranger, and " he that hateth suretyship is sure." It is further said, “ The poor is hated even of his own neighbour, but the rich hath many friends."


LET thy servants be such as thou mayest command, and entertain none about thee but yeoman, to whom thou givest wages; for those that will serve thee without thy hire, will cost thee treble as much as those that know thy fare. If thou trust any servant with thy purse, be sure thou take his account ere thou sleep, for if thou put it off, thou wilt then afterwards for tediousness neglect it. (I, myself, have thereby lost more than I am worth) and whatsoever thy servant gaineth thereby, he will never thank thee, but laugh thy simplicity to scorn; and, besides, 'tis the way to make thy servants thieves, wbich else would be honest.

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VENTURE not thy estate with any of those great ones that shall attempt unlawful things, for

such men labour for themselves and not for thee, thou shalt be sure to part with them in the danger, but not in the honour; and to venture a sure estate in present, in hopes of a better in future, is mere madness. Great men forget such as have done them service, when they have obtained what they would, and will rather hate thee for saying thou hast been a mean of their advancement, than acknowledge it.

I could give thee a thousand examples, and I, myself, know it, and have tasted it in all the course of my life; when thou shalt read and observe the stories of all nations, thou shalt find innumerable examples of the like. Let thy love, therefore, be to the best, so long as they do well; but take heed that thou love God, thy country, thy prince, and thine own estate, before all others; for the fancies of men change, and he that loves to-day, hateth to-morrow; but let reason be thy school-mistress, which shall ever guide thee aright.


IN all your expenses, consider beforehand, Can I not be well enough without this that I am about to buy? Is there an absolute necessity of it? Can I not forbear till I am in a better condition to compass it? If I buy or borrow, can I pay ? and when? and am I sure? Will this expense hold out? How shall I bring about the next qnarter, or the next year? If young men would but liave the patience to consider and ask themselves ques. tions of the like nature, it would make them considerate in their expenses, and provident for the future.


THE vanity of young men, in loving fine clothes and new fashions, and valuing themselves by them, is one of the most childish pieces of folly that can be, and the occasion of great profuseness and undoing of young men, Avoid curiosity and too much expensiveness in your apparel : let your apparel be comely, plain, decent, cleanly, not curious, or costly; it is the sign of a weak headpiece, to be sick for every new fashion, or to think himself the better in it, or the worse without it.



Honour in the breech is lodg’d,
As wise philosophers have judgd;
Because a kick in that part, more
Hurts honour than deep wounds before.

HUDIBRAS. SUCH combats have been very ancient, and perhaps more ancient than any other kind of fight. We read of many, performed before the war of Troy, by Theseus, Hercules, Pollux, and others; as also of two at the war of Troy, the one between Paris and Menelaus, the other between Hector and Ajax. Neither want there examples of them among the Hebrews, whereof that between David and Goliath ; and others performed by some of David's worthies, against those that challenged them, are greatly celebrated. In England, there was a great combat fought, between Edmund Ironside and Canutus the Dane, for no less than the kingdom. The use of them was very frequent in the Saxon times, almost upon every occasion, great or small. In the reign of Edward III. who sustained the part of Mountfort against the Earl of Blois, contending for the Duchy of Britaine, there was a fight for honour of the nations, between thirty of the Britains and thirty English; two of which English were Calverly, a brave captain, and that Sir Robert Knolles, who afterwards became a renowned commander in the French wars, and did highly honour his blood, whereof the Lord Knolles is descended. It were infinite to reckon the examples of the like, found in English, French, and Italian histories. Most of them have been combats of bravery, and of gaieté de cæur, as the French term it, for honour of several nations, for love of mistresses, or whatsoever else gave occasion unto men desirous to set out themselves.

After such time as Francis, the French king, upon some dispute about breach of faith, had

sent the Lie unto the Emperor Charles V. thereby to draw him to a personal combat; every petty companion in France, in imitation of their master, made the giving of the Lie, mortality itself; holding it a matter of no small glory to have it said, that the meanest gentleman in France would not put up with what the great Emperor Charles V. had patiently endured. From this beginning is derived a challenge of combat, grounded upon none of those occasions that were known to the ancients. So that in these days, wherein every man takes upon himself a kingly liberty, to offer, accept, and appoint personal combats, the giving only of the LIE, which ought to be the negation only in accusations for life, is become the most fruitful root of deadly quarrels. This is held a word so terrible, and a wrong so unpardonable, as will admit no other recompense than the blood of him that gives it. Thus the fashion, taken up in haste by the French gentlemen, after the pattern of their king, is grown to be a custom, whence we have derived a kind of art and philosophy of quarrel; with certain grounds and rules, from whence the points of honour and the dependencies thereof are deduced.

But let us examine indifferently the offence of this terrible word, the LIE, with their conditions, who are commonly of all other the most tender in receiving it. I say, that the most of these, who present death at the points of their swords to all that give it them, use nothing so much in their

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