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" fighting, stripes without cause, and faintness “ of eyes ? Even they that sit at wine, and strain " themselves to empty cups.” Pliny saith, “ Wine “ maketh the hand quivering, the eye watery, the “ night unquiet, lewd dreams, a stinking breath “ in the morning, and an utter forgetfulness of “all things."
SIR WALTER RALEGH.
WHOSOEVER loveth wine, shall not be trusted of any man, for he cannot keep a secret. Wine maketh man not only a beast, but a madman, and if thou love it, thy own wife, thy children, and thy friends will despise thee. In drink, men care not what they say, what offence they give; they forget comeliness, commit disorders, and, to conclude, offend all virtuous and honest company, and God most of all, to whom we daily pray for health, and life free from pain ; and yet, by drunkenness and gluttony, we draw on, saith Hesiod, a swift, hasty, untimely, cruel, and an infamous old age.
St. Augustine describeth drunkenness in this manner; “ Drunkenness is a flattering devil, a “ sweet poison, a pleasant sin, which whosoever “ hath, hath not himself, which whosoever doth “ commit, doth not commit sin, but he himself “ is wholly sin." Innocentius saith, “ What is “ filthier than a drunken man, to whom there is “ stink in the mouth, trembling in the body, “ which uttereth foolish things, and revealeth
“ secret things; whose mind is alienate, and face “ transformed. Whom have not plentiful cups “ made eloquent and talking.” When Diogenes saw a house to be sold, whereof the owner was given to drink, “I thought at the last,” quoth Diogenes, “ he would spew out a whole house ;" Sciebam inquit, quod domus tandem emoveret.
Sir Walter RALEGII.
THE angel of God forbad the wife of Manoah, the mother of Samson, to drink wine or strong drink; or to eat any unclean meat, after she was conceived with child, because those strong liquors hinder the strength, and, as it were, wither and shrink the child in the mother's womb. Though this were even the counsel of God himself, and delivered by his angel, yet it seemeth that many women of this age have not read, or at least will not believe this precept, the most part forbearing nor drinks, por meats, how strong or unclean soever, filling themselves with all sorts of wines, and with artificial drinks far more forcible; by reason whereof so many wretched feeble bodies are born into the world, and the races of the able and strong men in effect deeayed.
REMEMBER to avoid intemperance and sinful lusts. It is true, sickness and diseases, and finally death, are, by the laws and constitution of our nature, incident to all mankind; but intemperance, excess of eating and drinking, drunkenness, whoring, uncleanness, and disorder, bring more diseases, especially upon young men, and destroy more young strong healthy men, than the plague, or other natural or accidental distempers. They weaken the brain, corrupt the blood, decay and distemper the spirit, disorder and putrify the humours, and make the body a very bag full of putrefaction. Therefore, if you ever expect to have as well a sound body as a sound mind, carefully avoid intemperance and debauchery: the most temperate and sober persons are subject to sickness, weakness, and diseases, but the intemperate can never be long without them. ,
SIR MATTHEW HALE.
BE very moderate in eating and drinking; drunkenness is the great vice of the time, and by drunkenness I do mean, not only gross drunkenness, but also tippling, drinking excessively and immoderately, or more than is convenient or necessary. Avoid those companies that are given to it, come not into those places that are devoted to that beastly vice, namely, taverns and alehouses ; avoid and refuse those devices that are used to occasion it, as drinking and pledging of healths: be resolute against it, and when your resolution is once known, you will never be solicited to it.
Of all the virtues, justice is the best;
JUDGES ought to remember, that their office is “ jus dicere," and not“ jus dare ;" to interpret law, and not to make law, or give law: else will it be like the authority claimed by the church of Rome; which, under pretext of exposition of Scripture, doth not stick to add and alter; and to pronounce that which they do not find, and by show of antiquity, to introduce novelty.
Judges ought to be more learned than witty, more reverend than plausible, and more advised than confident. Above all things, integrity is their portion and proper virtue. “ Cursed" (saith the law) “ is he that removeth the land-mark." The mislayer of a mere stove is to blame; but it is the unjust judge that is the capital remover of landmarks, when he defineth amiss of lands and property. One foul sentence doth more burt than many foul examples; for these do but corrupt the stream, the other corrupteth the fountain.
“ THERE be," saith the Scripture, “ that “ turn judgment into wormwood ;” and surely there be also, that turn it into vinegar: for injustice maketh it bitter, and delays make it sour. • The principal duty of a judge, is to suppress force and fraud; whereof, force is the more pernicious when it is open; and fraud when it is close and disguised. Add thereto, contentious suits, which ought to be spewed out, as the surfeit of courts.
A judge ought to prepare his way to a just sentence, as God useth to prepare his way, by raising valleys and taking down hills: só when there appeareth on either side, a high hand, violent prosecution, cunning advantages taken, combination, power, great counsel, then is the virtue of a judge to make inequality equal; that he may plant his judgment as upon an uneven ground. “ Qui fortiter emungit, elicit sanguinem," and where the wine-press is hard wrought, it yields a harsh wine, that tastes of the grape-stone,
Judges must beware of hard constructions and strained inferences, for there is no worse torture than the torture of laws: especially, in case of laws penal, they ought to have care that that which was meant for terror be not turned into rigour; and that