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to Jerusalem. 8. He swore a great oath by the dead at Marathon. 9. The mother told a pitiful tale of privation. 10. Next, all in concert danced the war-dance. 11. Fight the good fight of faith. 12. Sing the songs that to me were so dear. 13. The great artist painted a picture of the resurrection. 14. The wind blew a great gale. 15. The adven. turers looked their last [look] on the scene of their exploits. 16. Soon after the pious missionary breathed his last [breath]. 17. And I will command the clouds that they rain no rain upon it. 18. You have learned the lesson well. 19. All were eagerly playing a game of ball. 20. His reply was, "digest me no digestions." 21. The mother could not sew a stitch. 22. He tied a hard knot in the rope. 23. He had done a deed of untold horror. 24. No one of the chiefs would run this race with him. 25. All men should live the life of the righteous.

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SOME ADDITIONAL OBJECTS. 1. SOME verbs take after them a reflexive object; that is, the object, represented by a pronoun, is the same person or thing as the subject; as, He struck himself.

2. This object may be either direct or indirect; and it may be the only complement of the verb, or may be accompanied by some other complement, objective or adverbial ; as, he congratulated himself on his success; he acknowledged to himself that he had been deceived ; he accused himself of no crime.

3. Some simple verbs, and other words, are followed by a preposition so closely related to the idea expressed by them, that it is better to take the two together as the sign of one idea, than to separate them into an idea-word and a relationword. For example : in, I shudder at the thought, I wonder at your folly, at hardly expresses a relation between the noun and the verb; it is rather part of the verbal idea, which thus becomes transitive with the following noun as the direct object. So in, This amounts to nothing, to relieve of difficulties, I call on you to answer, and others.

4. Some other words, also, are fairly to be considered as integral parts of the verbs to which they are joined. For example : in, fear took hold of them, took-hold-of expresses but one idea, that of seizing or possessing, and it seems a very mechanical analysis to insist that hold shall be made the object of the transitive verb took, and that of is a preposition showing the relation (what relation is it?) between them and hold. So give up is equivalent to surrender, came near to approached, etc.

5. Some verbs compounded of a simple verb—or what is a simple verb in the Latin or other language from which they come—and a preposition, repeat the preposition, in English form, after the verb. For example : adhere to, depend upon, sympathy with, embarked in or on, etc. In many such instances, the English preposition, being merely a repetition of the one included within the verb, may better be joined with that verb, making the verb transitive.

6. But this principle of compounding words which are separate in the text must not be applied at random, to avoid difficulties in the analysis. Grammar must account for each distinct idea, and must not save labor or thought by taking words in arbitrary groups. The test to be applied is this: is

a given word more nearly an inseparable part of the antecedent term on which it depends, or has it, in this connection, some significance or use apart from that term ? For example: Much depends on your own efforts ; is on really involved in the verb, or does it show a distinct and definite relation between the idea following and the verb ?

QUESTIONS.

1. What are reflexive objects? 2. Are they direct or indirect ? May other elements accompany them ? Give examples. 3. What is to be done sometimes with the preposition following a verb ? Give examples. 4. Give illustrations of other applications of the same principle. 5. What may be done with a preposition following a verb which is compounded with the same? 6. How must this be applied? What is the test ? Illustrate by examples.

PRACTICE.

Analyze the sentences which follow, paying special attention, by means of questions, to the points discussed above.

SENTENCES.

1. I enjoyed myself with my friends. 2. I submitted myself to the will of God. 3. I arrived at the city of Pekin. 4. We were made aware of the fate in store for us. 5. The rest broke into laughter. 6. The woman warmed herself at the fire. 7. At last we came to ourselves. 8. We soon got out of the reach of the giants. 9. I found him absorbed in sorrow. 10. We put to sea and arrived at Bagdad. 11. He disposed of all in this way. 12. We said our prayers to ourselves. 13. We made this promise to each other. 14. He muttered to himself, A lie! a lie ! 15. The slave crossed himself in token of his Christianity. 16. Affairs at length had come to this pass. 17. The chief had come to the great age of ninety years. 18. The soldiers

gradually accustomed themselves to this mode of warfare. 19. He surrendered himself to the enemy with great chagrin. 20. We made for the land with all speed. 21. A new danger now presented itself to his mind. 22. He looked at the man with great earnestness. 23. That question certainly answers itself. 24. My course will depend on all these circumstances. 25. He greatly blamed himself for such a result.

LESSON XXV.

RECAPITULATION OF OBJECTIVE ELEMENTS.

1. It is thus apparent that objective elements are very various in form and in office, and that much knowledge of the structure of sentences may be acquired from a careful study of their functions. It will be remembered that the topic is not yet completed, as objective infinitives and objective clauses are yet to be considered. 2. Synopsis of Objective Elements:

direct, { when they complete the idea of transitive verbs.

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Objective elements, which are words or groups of words, denoting that on which actions,

qualities, etc., are exerted, are

}

some nouns,

of kindred
meaning,

reflexive,

{

when they denote the same

person or thing as the sub-
ject, whether

}

direct or indirect.

Objective elements may be found variously combined in sentences ; several

may be found in the same sentence.

QUESTIONS.

1. What is said about objective elements ? What kinds are yet to be considered? 2. Write a synopsis of objective elements. Fird three examples of each kind in the Reader, or other book.

LESSON XXVI.

GENERAL REVIEW FROM LESSON XVI.

1. What ranks have elements ? 2. Define each and distinguish between them. 3. Which elements are principal and which subordinate 4. What is the relation of the basis of an element to the entire element? 5. When is an element subordinate in the second degree? 6. What is the rank of the proposition ? 7. How are elements divided as to structure? 8. Define each. 9. Illustrate by examples how elements are made complex. 10. What kind of ideas do complex elements represent? 11. Give a synopsis of elements as to rank. 12. The same as to structure. 13. Find ten complex elements of any kind, and name each. 14. What is the adjective element? 15. Where may it be found ? 16. Of what may it be composed ? 17. What does it denote ? 18. Find ten adjective elements, and tell whether each is simple or complex. 19. Translate this analysis :

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20. What is an adverbial element ? 21. To what may it be joined ! 22. Make, or find, an example of any adverbial element joined to each of these. 23. What may be its basis? 24. What does it express ? 25. Write a sentence containing three adverbial elements, one of which is a phrase. 26. What is an objective element ? 27. What is a direct objective element? 28. What do transitive verbs express ? 29. Define a transitive verb. 30. Find ten direct objective elements, half of them to be complex, and some of them, if possible,

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