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LESSON XXII.

THE OBJECTIVE ELEMENT.

INDIRECT OBJECTS, CONTINUED.

1. INDIRECT objects and some kinds of adverbial elements approach each other in office so closely that it is sometimes difficult to distinguish them.

2. The adverbial relations which come nearest to indirect objects are those, (1) of purpose and motive, and (2) place

and person.

3. For example: in he did an errand for me, for me is plainly an indirect object; in he did it for fun, is the doing directed to fun as its object, or is fun the purpose of the act ? in other words, is fun the beginning or the end of the act? It seems more nearly the latter. How is it in this ? He did it for mischief, or he did it from malice.

(2) For example: in he hastened to his room, to his room would generally be understood to denote the place to which he hastened, and so is adverbial; in, he hastened to his friend with the news, to his friend seems more nearly objective. How is it in this sentence ? He carried the book to school for his brother, for fear he might need it.

4. No formal rule by which to distinguish these elements, can be given. The inquiry should be whether the words denote more nearly some distinct adverbial relation, or that to which the action or state expressed by the verb tends ; in other words, whether they denote that on which an action terminates, or the cause, time, place, manner, etc., of the act. With any statement of the difference possible to be

made, some instances will still be on the dividing line between the two.

5. It is a useful exercise to discriminate, to a limited degree, between these elements which shade into each other. It should not lead, however, to useless disputes about the names of grammatical elements, but only to a very careful discrimination of the grammatical offices of certain combinations. The latter is a useful exercise-if any exercise in grammar is—while the former would often be only a waste of time.

QUESTIONS.

1. What elements are difficult to distinguish? 2. What relations are so in particular? 3. Give examples of each, and explain them. 4. How can they be distinguished from each other? 5. Is it useful to make these distinctions ? What is the main point about them to be considered ?

PRACTICE.

Analyze the following sentences, paying special attention to the distinction between indirect objectives and adverbial elements. If all in the class do not agree in reference to any such element after careful inquiry, it will only show that all do not get the same idea from a group of words, and this difference of view will be, in no wise, to be regretted, unless it leads to mere quarrels about names.

SENTENCES.

1. The master thanked him for the present. 2. He crept up stairs to his room. 3. Give to the winds thy fears. 4. The speaker roused himself to the greatness of the occa. sion. 5. He gazed on this intently for a few moments. 6. The two princes went to the place of meeting. 7. He asked this of me for his father's sake. 8. The medicine speedily

restored him to strength. 9. He instantly thought of his wonderful lamp. 10. I am glad of this for one thing at least. 11. The red-coats were accustomed to regular warfare. 12. A chief in great rage struck at him with a hatchet. 13. The commander invited him to a conference.

14. Some still stood firm for the French in all this uproar. ✓ 15. Others were furious against them. 16. The result was

due to his good offices. 17. His memory was trained to an astonishing tenacity. 18. He could offer no excuse for his conduct. 19. He was never timid for the right. 20. I was "put to the grammar school at eight years of age. 21. Full well they laughed with counterfeited glee at all his jokes. 22. Her mode of life she pleasantly describes in a letter to a friend. 23. He was born of an ancient family. 24. He waited with impatience for the coming of the night. 25. To his heart the life-blood thrilled with sudden start. 26. Friendship had changed to aversion. 27. Nature, a mother kind alike to all,

Still grants her bliss at labor's earnest call. 28. O once again to Freedom's call return the patriot Tell. 29. He enjoined on him the strictest secrecy. 30. The lieutenant with thirty men pushed for the fort-gate with all speed. 31. I write this for your private information. 32. Mr. Pope for himself had no such ambition. 33. I will de all for the love of country. 34. All this seems very hard to

35. This course will lead us all to speedy ruin. 36. Who had sent for this man? 37. This is a great event for the country. 38. After that, I will stick to my own business. 39. The last remark gave rise to much angry feeling. 40. He did this thoughtlessly, for no evil purpose.

me.

LESSON XXIII.

THE OBJECTIVE ELEMENT.

OBJECTS OF KINDRED MEANING.

1. MANY verbs take as their complement a word, or words, expressing the same idea which they express. These are generally called objects of kindred signification.

2. Some of these verbs can take only the one word which is kindred to their own meaning and their form; as, to run a race, to live a life, to die a death.

3. Sometimes the word of kindred meaning has a different form from that of the verb; as to swear an oath, to hear a sound, to say a word, to play a game, to do an act.

4. Others of these verbs take after them the general word of kindred meaning, or some particular specification of the same idea; as, to sing a song, or hymn, psalm, tune, glee, carol, etc.; to see a sight, or some particular object of sight, to hear a sound, or some particular object of sound; to do a deed, or some particular act; to speak a word, or some specified word, or words.

5. Others of these verbs take after them a clause, identifying or explaining the word of kindred meaning, which may or may not be expressed ; as, I dreamed a dream ; or I dreamed that I saw, etc. I thought [this thought, namely] that you are mistaken ; I wish [this wish, namely) that you

would go.

6. Others still take all these three forms of complements, as, I have said my say, I said not a word, I said that I would go.

7. Some of these verbs may take other objects besides those of kindred signification ; as, to tell a tale, or to tell the truth; to do a deed, or to do a favor.

QUESTIONS.

1. What complement do many verbs take? 2. What one form only can some of these take? 3. What is said about others ? 4 What do still others take? 5. Give another specification of this kind of object, with illustrations. 6. Give examples of all three forms after the same verb. 7. Give examples of verbs taking these objects with others. Find all the illustrations of this kind of object you can.

PRACTICE. Analyze the sentences which follow, with particular reference, when written out, to all the points given above, which may be brought out and extended by questions.

NOTE.—It is not thought desirable to introduce further numerals, or other marks, to distinguish different kinds of modifiers in simple sentences. The teacher can use additional ones, if he desires; but the aim is to keep these written analyses as near as possible to the form of the sentences as found, while the analysis is yet presented to the eye, without the confusion of too many details and too many marks of notation.

NOTE.—Sentences with subordinate clauses are used, in order to present all forms of these objects at once. They may be written now as objects, or parts of objects; without further disposal.

SENTENCES.

1. Let me die the death of the righteous. '2. I dreamed a dream, which was not all a dream. 3. We have already said that Rome became the center of European history. 4. Death grinned horribly a ghastly smile. 5. Instantly the chief yelled his war-cry. 6. Pray that prayer again. 7. He solemnly vowed this vow, that he would make a pilgrimage

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