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NOTE.—Many of these adverbial relations cannot be introduced till complex sentences are considered, as they are expressed, largely, by subordinate clauses,

5. As with the adjective element, several adverbial elements may be joined to one part of a sentence; they may be found in all parts of a sentence; they are always subordinate in rank; they may be simple or complex in structure. 6. Synopsis of adverbial elements :

adverb,

verb in any form, An adverbial element phrase,

adjective, subordinate adverb, clause,

noun, sentence, time, place,

with or without added words. manner, etc., etc.,

QUESTIONS.

joined to a

to denote various relations of

is an

1. What is an adverbial element ? 2. To what, further, is this element joined? 3. What may be the basis of this element? 4. What about the modifications it expresses ? 5. In what respects is it like the adjective element ? 6. Write a synopsis of the adverbial element. NOTE.—How are many adverbial relations expressed ?

PRACTICE. Analyze the sentences which follow according to the form given.

SENTENCE.—It was never so seen in Israel.
ANALYSIS :

never,? (time)
It

80,? (manner indefinitely) in Israel.? (place)

was

seen

SENTENCE.- In the meantime, the festivities in honor of the sultan's marriage were conducted in the sultan's palace with great magnificence.

ANALYSIS :

in honor of the princess' marriage,

the festivities were

conducted

in the meantime,”
in the sultan's palace,?
with great magnificence.?

NOTE.—The teacher will follow his own judgment about writing out the signification of the added elements, as in the first sentence above. The same remark holds about indicating the office of the elements by numerals. The author's idea is not to disfigure and complicate the written form by too many symbols, but to reduce the sentence to elements which may readily be taken separately for further description.

SENTENCES.

1. The day was intensely hot. 2. A great cheer went up from the forts. 3. The war was beginning in Virginia in earnest. 4. The passage opened directly at the foot of the rampart. 5. I was lying during a fiery noon on the edge of the island. 6. By what indications does manhood commence ? 7. The eldest brother was in all respects a remarkable boy. 8. Soon after this, we left Eaton for Ireland. 9. Where shall wisdom be found ? 10. For three days he walked about the city. 11. The grand ceremony took place on the next day. 12. Then they were marched to the sea-shore. 13. He was afterward brought before General Washington. 14. A stately squadron of snowy geese were riding in an adjoining pond. 15. The pedagogue's mouth watered at the promise of luxurious winter fare. 16. Ears of Indian corn hung in gay festoons along the wall. 17. In cold weather he was distinguished by a fur cap. 18. Heaped in the hollows of the graves, the autumn leaves lie dead. 19. One afternoon a mother sat at the door of her cottage. 20. The warning of the prudent officer was promptly obeyed by all. 21. One day they were left together at large in a room. 22. The next day at noon we found ourselves fourteen miles from the town.

23. In a hollow tree, in the gray old tower,

The spectral owl doth dwell. 24. He sat down at the foot of a tree, prostrate with fatigue. 25. Behind the relic came the archbishop in gorgeous cope, with canopy held above him. 26. At length a great change suddenly came over him. 27. On one occasion a large band was seen by a scout on the further bank of the river. 28. Thence they sailed round the head of the bay to the farthest point. 29. Far out at sea, beyond the sheltering islands, they gazed around them with anxious dread. 30. In the next act, the rightful heir was discovered behind the bars of a prison by the anxious officer.

LESSON XIX.

THE OBJECTIVE ELEMENT.

I. DIRECT OBJECT OF TRANSITIVE VERBS. 1. A WORD or group of words joined to a transitive verb to denote that on which its action is directly exerted is a direct objective element. This element may be joined to any part or form of the verb, used in any relation.

2. Transitive verbs express action of different kinds; e.g., that of the senses ; as, we see the sun : that of physical force ; as, the sun attracts the earth : that of mental energy ; as, study astronomy: that of the feelings or emotions; as, how I wonder what you are; we feel pain : that which results from a cause ; as, the law produced no effect, etc., etc.

3. A verb is transitive if the idea which it expresses is such tnat it directly affects, or reaches, or is exerted on, some object; that is, if this idea involves, or makes necessary, two persons or things, one an agent or doer, the other a recipient;

we

or, the grammars say, if it requires something after it to complete its meaning.

4. The objective element is always subordinate; it may be simple or complex ; it may be found in any part of a sentence; it may constitute an entire element, or it may be a component part of one, and two or more may be joined to the same word, as the preceding.

5. The basis of the direct objective element is generally an idea-word, an infinitive phrase or a subordinate proposition. The latter two are not introduced at present.

One form of an element does not admit of a synopsis.

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a direct objective element? To what may it be added ? 2. What kinds of action does a transitive verb express ? Give illustrations of each. 3. When is a verb transitive? 4. In what respects is it like the preceding? 5. What is the basis of the direct objective element ?

PRACTICE.

Analyze the sentences which follow according to the model, and extend and complete the analysis as suggested in the last lesson.

NOTE.—The sentences given for practice in any lesson may include all the elements previously presented, and now and then an element not yet presented. Remember that all objective elements may be marked with the numeral 3.

SENTENCE.—The sultan, pleased with this answer, kissed the princess fervently. ANALYSIS : pleased with the sultan kissed

the princess,

fervently. SENTENCE.—This sudden change in the mind of the king occasioned various rumors.

Analysis :

This,

sudden, change occasioned{various rumors. in the mind of the king,

SENTENCES. 1. She wears no diadem on her brow. 2. Them the evangelist heeded not. 3. I will now explain the meaning of this word. 4. The incidents of that day had no direct personal consequences. 5. The first gun fired at Fort Sumter instantly aroused the whole nation. 6. He saw the advance of the Roman column along the plain. 7. She had but one ornament-a plain gold ring. 8. Not another word had I heard about my great expectations. 9. I could recognize nothing of the sort. 10. I was then reading Cæsar at the grammar-school. 11. She next placed herself before the sultan. 12. The heir of an estate often passed his boyhood at the seat of his family. 13. She had selected for her own use, in Roland's magnificent hotel, the smallest drawing-room. 14. The keen-eyed young savage pierced the cheat at a glance. 15. My early readiness in learning encouraged him in this purpose. 16. No busy steps the grassgrown garden tread. 17. The sentinel stars set their watch in the sky. 18. The nymph with the sea-green hair made a courtesy down to the ground. 19. Ulysses, unmoved by her manner, at once followed her into the great saloon. 20. He carried her in his arms up the great flight of steps into the great hall of the palace. 21. The dismal Hecate did not very much like the idea of a journey to the sunny world. 22. Poor Mother Ceres had now found out the fate of her unhappy daughter. 23. Every little girl's flower-bed showed nothing but dry stalks. 24. This enterprise was the most dangerous in the world. 25. The eyes of King Pelias sparkled with joy at this good news.

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