NOTE.-Sentences are selected containing nothing, or little, beyond the elements already considered. A few others are to be fonnd in them in order to accustom the pupil to determine whether a certain word, or group, is an adjective, or some other, element. The sentences are in all cases so simple in structure that the necessary distinction can readily be made. The same kind of sentences will be selected for each following lesson. Articles

may be taken with their nouns, after careful reading of the following note:

NOTE ON THE USE OF THE ARTICLES. The words which will call for the most useless and most frequent repetition of the phraseology of analysis are the ARTICLES.

What do these words signify? The definite article is a sign to the hearer or reader that some definite thing is intended by the speaker or writer; if it is not supposed to be equally definite to the former, it is made so by a phrase or clause following. For example: I want the book ; the is a sign that some particular book is wanted, but it does not indicate the book ; that is done, if at all, by some other expression ; as, the book on the table ; the book which we are using, etc. Very often it stands before the noun as a sign which has no verbal explanation in the sentence, and is thus, as it were, a mere prefix or handle to hold the noun by.

A or an, on the other hand, is a sign that no definite thing is intended, and, of course, nothing follows to explain it.

These two words are, in every instance in which they are used, mod. ifiers of some idea; but to save this constant and tiresome repetition of the same words two or three times in every sentence, take the article with its noun, but frequently ask what it means. For example : I saw the man coming ; do not say, every time at least, man is modified by the, a simple specifying adjective element, etc., but frequently ask, what man is the man ?

MODEL.—It is convenient, in analysis of sentences, to have some simple way of representing elements to the eye. The main advantages of this are two : first, that the work of the class may be written out, and, like other work in writing, inspected at a glance ; second, to save the tedium of lengthy

oral analyses, which soon become very monotonous from the repetition of formulæ which are often repeated several times in the same sentence. Such model should be as simple as possible; it should not distort the parts of the sentence, and it should show clearly the relation of the parts.

It is recommended that the teacher-unless he has models of his own contriving which he prefers—should use those here given for every sentence; that is, the one for writing out the parsing of sentences given in Lessson XII, and the one which follows for analyzing simple sentences. When complex sentences are reached, an additional suggestion will be made.

SENTENCE.—The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom. ANALYSIS.

FORM II. of the Lord' {The fear ile beginning of wisdom.' SENTENCE.--His denial of the crime, earnestly made in open court, was a great relief to all present. ANALYSIS


of the crime,' denial

a relief to all present."



EXPLANATION.— The proposition is put by itself in the middle, that it may be seen to occupy its real place in the heart of the sentence; with the parts of this are connected their modifiers. Each such modifier is written separately, and shows at once its form and structure, and what it modifies, while the sentence can be readily reconstructed from the parts as written. If it seems best, the office of the element may be indicated by a numeral ; adjective elements, which are here taken up first, being marked 1, adverbial 2, and objective 3.

9. Complex elements are not separated into parts, as that would soon lead to needlessly complex forms of writing. This separation into distinct elements, and leaving the sentence so, will give a much clearer idea of its composition than minute analysis will. Such elements may be separated into their component parts as a further exercise.

As the character of this exercise will depend very much on following some regular order, this is suggested, so long as the sentences continue to be simple.

1. Let each sentence be written as above.

2. Let the form be interpreted in words; thus, denial was a relief is the proposition ; his, of the crime, earnestly made in open court, are adjective modifiers of the subject, denial; great, to all present, are adjective modifiers of the attribute, relief.

3. Let such complex elements as the teacher may desire be described and reduced to their ultimate elements; as,earnestly made in open court, is a complex adjective element, made is the basis, and is modified by earnestly, a simple, etc., and by in open court, a complex, etc., this being written in form, thus,

made i


in open court. 4. Let such single questions about form, basis, modifying power, etc., as seem desirable, be asked; as, what is the structure of to all present? what is the basis of earnestly made, etc. ? how many elements in this sentence ? etc., etc. Rapid and skillful questioning will often be the best drill upon the written form, and so may be all that is necessary.

5. Let the sentence be written out as a parsing exercise according to Form I, Lesson XII, and let such words and phrases as the teacher may desire, be parsed in full, and let such questions be asked as may be necessary to “bring out” the syntax fully, or to call attention to any peculiarities.

Such an order will enable the class to get through with much work in a recitation period, and will enable the teacher to distribute the work among the pupils so as to keep all busy at something besides listening.

Of course, the order given is not to be followed rigidly, but an order will assist pupils in preparing lessons, and will really assist in class recitations.


I am.

1. His messenger

2. The question of the library was discussed.

3. The sense of guilt grew stronger. 4. The man's curiosity was excited. 5. James, the brother of Charles, succeeded. 6. This is no man's land. 7. Time, the all-healer, came to his relief. 8. The next letter was to her father. 9. The boy is the shoemaker's friend. 10. The superior of the convent was aunt to the new-born stranger. 11. The old political disputes were at an end. 12. He was President of the Provincial Congress. 13. Many of the early laws were severe. 14. That mighty music was without a jarring note. 15. My requests for dismissal were idle. 16. The governor's splendid palace was on fire. 17. Was this the foretaste of my own afflictions ? 18. A strange superstition of childhood-a dread of evil spirits—was my constant terror. 19. There is a land of pure delight. 20. My guide, afraid of his own shadow, turned back. 21. All these were mere terrors of the night, phantoms of a disordered mind. 22. Hard by the farmhouse was a great barn. 23. Here rows of resplendent pewter, brilliant with much labor, dazzled his eyes.

24. The melancholy days are come, the saddest of the year. 25. The happiest bird of our spring is the boblincoln, the merriest singer of the meadows. 26. No situation in

human life is perfectly secure. 27. These bold remarks of the vizier greatly kindled the sultan's rage.

28. In sooth, he was a peerless hound,

The gift of royal John. 29. With this saying, Prospero gently touched his daughter with his magic wand. 30. Tito's talents for diplomatic work had been well ascertained long before this time.



1. Any word or group of words joined to the predicate as a whole or to either of its parts, to denote the time, place, cause, purpose, result, means, agent, instrument, manner, comparison, degree or mode, of what it asserts, is an adverbial element.

2. The adverbial element is also joined to the verb in any relation, to adjectives, to adverbs, and sometimes to nouns, propositions, and sentences; that is, it is joined to whatever an adverb may be joined.

3. The basis of an adverbial element may be an adverb, & preposition with its object, a proposition with its connective. Any group of words doing any of the offices given above is an adverbial element, though it does not contain an adverb.

4. The modifications expressed by this element are very various; some of them elude statement in a single word. It is desirable to assign a definite office to as many as possible in the analysis of sentences.

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