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I come to pluck your berries, harsh and crude,
SYNOPSIS OF SYNTAX.
The following synopsis of syntax includes all ordinary constructions of words in English sentences :
1. Subject-nominative, or 2. Predicate-nominative of verbs.
3. In the possessive case, to limit the noun following.
4. Objective-subject, or, 5. Objective predicate, with verb in the infinitive mode.
6. Object of action after transitive verbs and their participles, and, 7. of relations shown by prepositions.
8. In the same case--nominative or objective-with I. Nouns are other nouns or pronouns by apposition, when both stand for the same person or thing.
a, in direct address,
b, in exclamations, 9. Independent or absolute,
with a participle in
abridged clauses. 10. Used as adjectives, particularly to denote material.
11. Used as parts of compound words.
II. Pronouns may have any construction of the noun except that they cannot be in apposition either with each other or with a poun.
assumed quality, 1. limit nouns by expressing some specification,
some circumstance. III. Adjectives 2. complete predicates after copulas, etc.
3. are used as with the, to denote persons,
with the, to denote abstract quality. 4. and as parts of compound words. if finite in mode, are predicates of their subjects, with
which they agree in person and number.
if in the infinitive mode, may take various constructions, IV. Verbs,
for which see Lessons XXVII and XXIX.
for which see Lesson LIII.
other adverbs, to denote various circumstances V. Adverbs modify
of time, place, manper, etc. phrases, sentences,
time, place, origin, source, possesVI. Prepositions show relations of
sion, accompaniment, etc., etc.,
between a subsequent term, called the object, and some antecedent term on which it depends. A preposition without an object following is generally an adverb.
r words, VII. Conjunctions j phrases,
coördinate or submaking the
ordinate, in various connect clauses,
ways. sentences, VIII. Interjections have no syntax.
IX. Substantive, adjective, and adverbial phrases and clauses perform some offices of nouns, adjectives, and adverbs.
The syntax of words is, of course, learned by parsing; but, if the teacher thinks best, the pupil may be required to tell, or to write, in one view, the offices of some part of speech, with the addition of examples.
RECAPITULATION AND REVIEW.
1. THE ground-word of analysis has now been laid in the discussion of classes of words, their manner of union, the fundamental idea of grammatical elements, the basis of the sentence or the proposition, the parts of speech and their syntax.
2. The two exercises of analysis and parsing have been begun and are to go on together to the end. They differ in these respects : analysis separates the sentence into elements; parsing constructs words into the sentence; parts of speech, with which the latter deals, do not always coincide with the elements with which the former deals; analysis treats the sentence as a whole made up of component parts ; parsing treats the sentence as an aggregate of words, each having a distinct office. The two should deal with the sentence in all its possible grammatical relations.
3. The elements, as far as now presented, are very simple ; their combination with others will make very complicated sentences.
4. To the proposition, with other forms of it not yet considered, are added all other elements. Language consists of propositions and added words, or groups of words.
5. The grammarian considers only the relations of parts in sentences, not the relations of sentences. He considers, also, only the form of expression in which the thought is conveyed.
6. Neither ideas nor words go into sentences at random; only related ideas can be put together and only by proper construction.
7. Asserting words are of very great importance in grammar; it is, also, essential to know the difference in the asserting power of the different classes of such words.
8. It is important, also, to investigate from the start the nature of different assertions, i.e., whether they affirm quality, action, state, etc., and to be in the habit of stating these as accurately as possible.
9. The classes of assertions are but few; but the particular assertions possible are very many; and with the varieties of asserting words, and the modifications of these by added words, the number of assertions is without number.
10. It cannot be too strongly impressed upon the student that all parts of the sentence start from and cluster about the PROPOSITION, WHICH IS THE KEY TO THE WHOLE.
QUESTIONS ON THE FOREGOING.
1. In what has the ground-work of analysis been laid? 2. How do analysis and parsing differ? How should the two together deal with the sentence? 3. What is the nature of the elements now presented ? Of the combinations of these to be made ? 4. What is the relation of the proposition to other elements? Of what does language consist? 5. What does the grammarian consider in the study of sentences ? 6. How do ideas and words go into sentences ? 7. What is the importance of asserting words ? What about them is essential ? 8. What, besides, should be investigated from the beginning? 9. What is said about the classes of assertions, as to number? About the number of assertions? 10. Once again, state the importance of PROPOSITIONS.
GENERAL QUESTIONS IN REVIEW.
1. Define a word. 2. A phrase. 3. A clause. 4. A sentence, 5. How are words joined ? 6. What words can be joined ? 7. What three kinds of words ? 8. Which are most numerous ? 9. Give ten of each class. 10. Construct a sentence containing as many ideawords as you can put into it without any of the other kinds. 11. Which class of words is most important ? 12. Define analysis. 13. Parsing. 14. Element. 15. What must an element express which is wanting in a part of speech? 16. What is the basis of an element? 17. What forms may elements have ? 18. From any book select five elements of each form, and tell the basis of each. 19. What are the six elements of sentences ? 20. How are prepositions and conjunctions used as parts of elements ? 21. What is the logical basis of a sentence? 22. When is a sentence in good English ? 23. What is the relation, in a sentence, between sense and syntax ? 24. Can non-sense be analyzed and parsed ? 25. Can a sentence wbose meaning is not understood be analyzed and parsed ? 26. What is the basis of a sentence ? 27. Define proposition. 28. What three distinct parts in every proposition? 29. Define each. 30. What may be the subject of a sentence ? 31. Select from any book ten subjects, and let them illustrate as many forms as possible. 32. How may the simple subject of a sentence be found ? 33. What make the predicate? 34. When may these be in one word ? 35. Find five predicates composed of attributive verbs, and separate each into two parts. 36. What three kinds of asserting words ? 37. Define each, and give, or find, examples. 38. What parts of speech may attributes be? 39. What does each, with the copula, etc., assert ? 40. Find five examples of each kind of attribute. 41. What forms may the attribute take? 42. Find ten propositions, including all varieties, and analyze each. 43. What are the modes of sentences ? 44. Find examples to illustrate each variety of imperative sentences. 45. Do exclamatory sentences require any special form ? 46. Name the parts of speech. 47. Write a synopsis of verbs, with examples. 48. Write a synopsis of the syntax of nouns, with examples. 49. Of adjectives. 50. What are the essential points of parsing ?