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nothing is more instructive than this short parsing. As such, it is recommended for much practice. Let every word in order be named definitely and construed exactly, and let properties and rules be called for as the teacher thinks best.

5. Parsing should be extended to groups of words. Such, or such, a group of words is an adjective or substantive, phrase or clause, with such, or such, an office, as a whole.

NOTE.—This short parsing may be made a rapid and spirited exercise by each pupil's disposing of one word without hesitation or waste of time, and the teacher's calling at the end of each sentence for the disposal of such groups of words as he may select.

The teacher should require such classification as he may teach or as the books may authorize tɔ be given, but it should be given with pre. cision and minuteness; as, a regular transitive verb, a common noun used as a proper noun, a simple personal pronoun, etc.

The teacher will also need to require the terms he prefers to be used in giving construction ; e.g., he will need to rule whether a pupil shall say an adjective relates to, refers to, belongs to, or modifies, its noun; whether an objective case is governed by, or completes the relation expressed by, a preposition. There is, of course, great choice of terms; the author's preference, which is not binding on any one, is indicated in the synopsis of syntax in the next lesson.

6. No detailed forms for parsing are thought necessary, except that the following is suggested as a convenient way of writing a lesson on the board in class, or on paper to be brought into class for correction.

SENTENCE. His cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold. 1. His, personal pronoun, limiting 2. 2. Cohorts, collective noun, subject of 3. 3. Were gleaming, regular intransitive verb, predicate of 2. 4. In, preposition, showing relation of 5 and 7 to 3.

5. Purple, adjective, used as noun, with 7 completes relation of 4.

6. And, coordinate conjunction, connects 5 and 7. 7. Gold, noun sui generis, with 5 completes relation of 4.

4. The value of the exercise of parsing will depend on the accuracy and quantity of its practice.

QUESTIONS.

1. When should parsing be begun and how long is it to be continued ? 2. What four items does it include ? 3. Which two of these are least useful ? 4. Which two are essential? What does short parsing require ? 5. To what should it be extended ? 6. What forms are needed ? May it then be done in any order and manner ? 7. On what will the value of this exercise depend ?

LESSON XIII.

SYNOPSIS OF THE PARTS OF SPEECH.

It is not thought necessary to do more in etymology than to give a full synopsis of the parts of speech as they are authorized by the grammars generally. Synopsis of the different parts of speech : individuals,

proper, each one of a class, common,

number, all a class together, collective NOUNS, having

person, quality apart from a { abstract, the modifica

gender, substance,

tions of things, sui generis,

sui generis, actions or states, verbal,

1. Names of

case.

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personal, when the form and simple, or compounded with

shows person and number, may be self or selves.

interrogative, when they {these are the same in form as relatives.

ask questions ;

They are

simple, or compounded with

relative, when they refer to
a word in the same sen and
tence, and

connect their may be
clause to that word,
For pro-sentences, see Lesson XL.

ever or soever.

common,

participial,

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compound,

3. Words which limit the

application of nouns

common qualities,
names of states or

actions used as,
compounds formed

to make,
some individual cir-
cumstance,

or
number,order, or rank,
whether a definite or
indefinite object is
meant,

proper,

by speci

fying

ADJECTIVES, some of them admitting the modification called comparison.

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pronominal

are

NOTE.—All adjectives limit; some do so by designating some quality or property, and others without designating any such quality.

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NOTE.—Voice, in grammar, is a form of the verb which indicates the relation of the action to the subject. The voice of a verb is active or passive; the copulas, by their nature, are neuter as to voice. Some verbs, commonly called impersonal, can have only a subject like themselves, or the indefinite it; as, it rains, or, rain rains. 5. Words which express time, place, cause,

ADVERBS, with oi manner, degree,

degree, some circumstance of

without comparison. mode, etc., NOTE. —These relations, and others, are also expressed by combinations of words, making adverbial phrases and clauses.

words, phrases, clauses, or sen-
tences, and thus bring the parts

CONJUNCTIONS. 6. Words which connected into grammatical relaconnect

tions, are
{ by
by showing relations of ideas,

PREPOSITIONS. For full presentation of conjunctions, see Lesson XXXII. 7. Words which express wonder, surprise, joy,

INTERJECTIONS. emotions of NOTE.—Participles, classed by some as a separate part of speech, are really forms of the verb, and never lose their verbal nature.

8. Groups of words, which taken together perform the office of nouns, adjectives, or adverbs, are substantive, adjective, or adverbial phrases or clauses.

are

wonder, surprise, joy, }

QUESTIONS. From the foregoing, with reference to the grammar if necessary, the various parts of speech may be defined, and their divisions may be given, without special questions.

PRACTICE. Tell what part of speech each word in the following sentences is ; if it is necessary—that is, if the pupil is not already quite familiar with such points—nouns and pronouns may be declined, plural numbers formed, the masculine or the

feminine gender may be given, adjectives and adverbs may be compared, verbs may be conjugated, etc., etc. Parts of speech and their etymology should be at the pupil's command before going further.

Some words which will require careful notice are printed in italics.

SENTENCES.

The Gray Boy had had breakfast, and was all ready to go. It had been a hasty meal, but wasn't there to be stuffed turkey and cranberry sauce for dinner? He had bidden the housekeeper good-morning, and had gone up-stairs for a bunch of hot-house rosebuds to take to mamma, and to brush his coat and put on his watch.

He had left them up there on the sitting-room table, all together, a moment ago. And now, could he believe his eyes, his watch was not on the table! The Gray Boy was in great distress. It was near train-time, and then the idea that a thief had been in the house! He ran up to his room to see if he could have left the watch in its case. He ran down, calling aloud to the housekeeper as he went. But she had stepped out. Then he ran back and stood still, looking again at the table.

All at once, high over his head, there was a shrill cackle of laughter. There in the ebony ring which had been hung from the ceiling for his swing, high out of reach, swung the pink parrot. The gold watch was between his claws, the chain shining as it hung. As he met the Gray Boy's eyes, he cackled again, laughed aloud, and shrieked, “Wait a bit, wait a bit."

Yet once more, O ye laurels, and once more,
Ye myrtles brown, with ivy never sere,

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