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after it some word or words to complete a peculiar predication. Two examples will make this plainer.
14. In the sentence, he walked ten miles, the verb expresses a complete assertion, the words added modifying that assertion by denoting how far he walked. Walked, then, in this case, is the simple predicate. But in the sentence, he walked a king, the use of the verb is different. The sentence is, obviously, meant to assert the act of walking and something more, viz., that character or rank is shown by that act. It is not quite the same to say, he walked and was a king ; nor, he walked as a king would walk. It is very nearly equivalent to saying, in, or by, his walk he showed himself to be a king. The principal idea in the assertion is the kingliness of the walk. The simple predicate, then, is walked a king.
15. He went a friend who came a foe. Went generally expresses complete predication; here it does not. He and friend are the same person, but they are not in apposition; the first is the subject-nominative and the second predicatenominative. The meaning is not the same as, he was a foe and came, who went and was a friend ; nor, he went as a friend would
go, who came as a foe would come. The main idea of the two predicates is in the being a friend in his going, notwithstanding his being a foe in his coming. The nearest equivalent expression is, he was a friend when he went who was a foe when he came, but this form gives too much prominence to the idea of time. Went a friend and came a foe are the two simple predicates of the sentence.
16. Other examples are, He stood every inch a soldier. She moved a goddess. The Lord sitteth king for ever.
17. Verbs used in this way are copulative verbs. They are not pure copulas, nor are they attributive verbs; they express
more than the first, and, in this use, less than the second The test may be two-fold : (a) does the verb in a given sentence express complete predication ? (6) is the principal idea of the predicate expressed by the verb, or by the following word ?
18. Still again. Verbs which in the active voice take after them a direct object and an attribute of that object, retain the attribute when the verb is in the passive voice, and the verb becomes copulative. For example, the people elected him president, becomes in the passive form, he was elected president. The simple predicate is not, was electedfor that does not make a complete assertion—but, was elected president; was elected is the asserting word and president the attribute, in the same case with the subject. The verb here again is copulative.
RECAPITULATION.—There are four uses of the verb in predication.
(a.) The COPULA, some form of the verbs to be, to become, to seem, to appear, asserting a connection between the attribute and the subject, the former being always a distinct part of speech and the verb itself making an incomplete predication.
(6.) The ATTRIBUTIVE VERB, which contains its own attribute, thus making complete predication. It may combine copula and attribute in one word, and it may always resolve its one verbal form into a very nearly equivalent of copula and attribute.
(c.) The COPULATIVE VERB in two forms; first, a verb which, in most instances making complete predication, is sometimes used in a peculiar sense with an attribute following, the principal idea of the two inclining to be in the attribute rather than in the verb. Second, the passive voice of a verb becomes copulative in its use, when it is followed
by an attribute of the direct object of the verb in the active voice.
1. What does every proposition contain? What are the asserting words of a language? What is the subject of this lesson? 2. What do predicates assert ? 3. How many kinds of verbs are to be considered ? 4. What is the first? What verb is the common copula ? What is said of it? 5. What is its chief office ? 6. Give the first illustration. 8. By what name is the verb to be called? What other copulas? How do they differ from to be? 9. What is the second case? 10. What are such verbs called ? Why are they verbs of complete predication Into what can they be resolved ? 11. What is said about this class of verbs? How are such predicates as “to be in debt" made ? 12. When is the verb to be attributive? Give a sentence illustrating both uses. 13. What is the third case? 14. Give the first illustration. 15. Give the second illustration. 16. Give other illustrations. 17. What are these verbs called ? How do they differ from copulas ? What two tests may be applied ? 18. What is the fourth case? Illustrate by an example. 19. State. clearly, what a copula is, and its office. The same for attributive verbs. The same for the two forms of copulative verbs.
Select and analyze, as before, the simple propositions in the following sentences, adding the class to which the asserting word belongs. The model given will be changed to
a copula, read the asserting word is
a copulative verb,
an attributive verb, and the attribute
1. May I be allowed to inquire whether that exertion was in the least fatiguing to you?
2. The burden seems greater than he can bear. 3. There was no time for reflection.
4. Here his presence lingers still.
5. Bowing his head, he listened for an answer to his prayer.
6. O, the hands that mine are clasping !
9. In his time he was reckoned good. 7
10. Clatter, clatter goes the mill below. 11. His uncle was appointed guardian of the child. 12. The Spartan youth were accustomed to go barefoot. 13. The Lord sitteth king for ever. 7
14. Palsied be the hand that would sever the ties which bind the East and the West.
15. Scrooge never painted out old Marley's name. There it stood years after, above the warehouse door. The firm was known as Scrooge and Marley. Sometimes people, new to the business, called Scrooge Scrooge, and sometimes Marley.—Dickens.
16. It was summer and I was attending school. The seats were hard and the lessons were dry, and the walls of the school-room were very cheerless. An indulgent, sweet-faced girl was my teacher; and I presume that she felt the irksomeness of the confinement quite as severely as I did. The weather was delightful and the birds were singing every. where ; and the thought came to me that if I could only stay out of doors and lie down in the shadow of a tree I could get my lesson. I begged the privilege of trying the experiment.-J. G, Holland. 17. It was twelve by the village clock,
When he crossed the bridge into Medford town, He heard the crowing of the cock,
And the barking of the farmer's dog,
He felt the damp of the river-fog,
That rises when the sun goes down.
24. The fining pot is for silver and the furnace for gold; but the Lord trieth the hearts.
25. All the sea lies hollow and gray with mist.
1. It is time to introduce the exercise of PARSING as soon as the simplest form of analysis is learned, and it should be thoroughly practised with every lesson.
2. Parsing in full includes these four items : (a) telling the part of speech a word belongs to ; (6) giving its properties; (c) giving its construction ; (d) quoting the rule of syntax.
3. Of these the fourth is almost, if not entirely, useless, the rules being merely formal statements of the construction already given. The second soon becomes a tiresome and meaningless repetition, which need be required only as often as may be necessary to keep the slender etymology of the language in mind.
4. The essential points are the first and the third, or assigning each word to some definite part of speech, and giving its exact office in the sentence. As a grammatical exercise,