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QUESTIONS. 1. What is the first step in analysis ? 2. What does every sentence make? What is the logical basis of a sentence? How may the thought appear? 3. What must every sentence contain ? What is the combination of these? 4. What is the relation of the proposition to the sentence? 5. What may be the subject of a sentence? Give specifications of this. 6. How is the subject known ? Give illustrations. How is the simple subject found ? 7. What may be predicated of a subject ? Give specifications of this. 8. In what ways may judgments be expressed ? 9. What is the essential difference between these two forms? 10. What must be the relation of subject and attribute in a proposition? What is the distinction between attribute and predicate? 11. What do propositions assert ? What parts of speech are used ? 12. What other predicates ? 13. How is the simple predicate found? 14. Of what form may the parts of a proposition be? 15. What is the proposition to the sentence ? Define Proposition ; Subject; Attribute. What does the asserting word do? What make the predicate? What difference does the asserting word make ? What do propositions assert? What distinct parts does the proposition contain ? What exception to this? 16 Give a synopsis of simple propositions.
Analyze the simple propositions which follow, after the model given; then select the propositions from the sentences following and analyze in the same way.
NOTE.—The examples for practice in this lesson are confined to those which contain either the asserting word to be, or the verb which combines the asserting word and the attribute. Others are given in the next lesson.
The teacher is urged to made thorough work of propositions, as they are the key to the entire subject. When these are mastered, the rest is easy. Let the practice be extended till this is accomplished.
Articles may be taken with their nouns; so may all possessive pro
MODEL. In the proposition the subject is and the predicate the asserting word and attribute being
quality, and the attribute an participle, denoting action, of the
etc., The subject is a word, subject.
phrase, The attribute is a l clause.
NOTE.—Once for all, it is not, of course, essential to follow the models given. Teachers have their own way of doing all this school work. The models are not meant to supersede better.ones, but only for the use of those who have none of their own. They are made to be as simple and compact as possible, but the form is not essential. It is essential, however, that the teacher should require all such work to be done in an orderly manner, and that the analysis which practices first lessons in any division of the subject should be careful and minute.
PROPOSITIONS TO BE ANALYZED.
Anger is cruel. Time is a stream. To hear is to obey. The wind was still. He is in debt. Where were the children? The glow was gone. Tears will start. The turf shall be my shrine. Thoughts are prayers. There's nothing bright. Behind us are the Moormen. Skill is in vain. The morning cometh. The sail is the banner. The sentiments were elevated. His lot was to die. His knowledge was without ostentation. The request was granted. The men were famishing. The prophet was foot-sore. The army was on the march. Her hands are cold. The dew was on the grass. Here's a sight. The train is on time. To lie is base.
Sentences from which the proposition is to be selected, and analyzed by the model given.
1. It was a summer eve,
Old Caspar's work was done;
Was sitting in the sun. 2. But now a faint tick was heard below from the pendulum.
3. As to that, is there not a window in your house, on purpose for you to look through?
4. Now is the proper time. 5. Ah! how easy it is to read what it was so difficult to write. 6. There is John Foster; what a great writer he was !
17. Work is not an end in itself. The end of work is to enjoy leisure, or the reward of toil is rest.
8. What are children? The street is full of them. Yonder a school is let loose, and here are two or three noisy little fellows, and there is a party mustering for play. Some are whispering while others are holding aloof. The child is father of the man. They are the blossoms of another world whose fruitage is archangels.
9. Your specimens are all about you.
10. We are all surprised some time in our lives at the good turns men do us when we least expect them.
THE VERB IN PREDICATION : THE PROPOSITION.
1. KEEPING in mind that the proposition is the key to analysis, that every proposition contains an assertion, and that the asserting words of a language are verbs, it is obvious that a full understanding of the verb in predication is essential.
2. All predicates assert the existence of some attribute in the subject; or, in more general terms, the connection of
some circumstance of quality, action, situation, condition, etc., with the subject; that is, again, they contain an asserting word and something asserted.
3. With this view of predicates, there are four cases to be considered, giving four kinds of verbs.
4. The pure copula. This is the verb TO BE, the verb of existence, the most general in its signification, the most frequent in its use, and the most important verb in the language. All languages contain such a verb, used in essentially the same way.
5. Its chief office is to assert the connection of attribute and subject. Its primary and fundamental sense of existence, or being, is not wholly lost; but it does not so much assert the existence of anything as independent substance, as that attributes belong to the subject of assertion, which must, therefore, itself exist. Two examples will make this plainer.
6. Honey is sweet. Here sweetness is asserted of honey. The assertion is not directly and simply that honey, with the property of sweetness, exists—that there is such a thing as honey—but that the quality named belongs to it. To bring the statement a little nearer to philosophical exactness, the assertion is that the existence of honey is known to us, that is, predicated for us, in its sweetness for one thing. Not the existence of the subject, but the existence of the quality in the subject, is asserted.
7. The larks are in the meadow. This is not intended to assert that such birds as larks exist and that they exist in the meadow, but to make the two assertions one by stating about the larks the circumstance of their being in the meadow. This is done by means of the verb are, the asserting word of the sentence, the copula, or link, between the circumstance of place and the larks.
8. This office of pure copula is performed, principally, by the verb TO BE, called also the abstract verb, the substantive verb, the pure verb, the verb of incomplete predication. Other verbs are copulas, with less or more shading towards the predicates named below. These are become, seem, appear, and perhaps some others. These mean a little more than pure copulas; they do a little more than connect subject with attribute; they express, in a slight degree, a verbal idea, but so little of this have they, that they belong to copulas rather than to any other class of verbs.
9. Again. The attribute and the asserting word may both be combined in one word which is always a verb, and the assertion made is generally one of action or state.
10. Such verbs are called attributive or mixed, because they contain both the assertion and the asserting word. They are verbs of complete predication, because they make assertions without the addition of other words. They may be resolved, however, into the two factors of every predicate, namely, the asserting word and the thing asserted. Thus, trees grow is very nearly equivalent to trees are growing; the king reigned in Hebron, to the king was reigning. The asserting word must be, either apparently or by implication, in every predicate.
11. By far the greater part of the verbs in a language are attributive verbs. These are all given in the dictionaries with definitions ; but there is no verb “to be good,” or “ to be in debt,” in English ; such predicates are always made of the verb to be with some separate word or phrase as a complement.
12. The verb to be retains its full sense of existence in such expressions as, God is. The sentence “whatever is, is right,” illustrates both uses.
13. Again. The verb may be one which generally expresses complete predication, but in certain sentences takes