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imperative mode in form or in fact, and they are called IMPERATIVE sentences.

7. Some sentences assert in an emphatic or passionate manner. They may do this in two ways:

(a.) By the manner of utterance, the words and their order remaining as in other sentences ; in this way almost any sentence may become emphatic or passionate.

(6.) By the addition of some word of emphasis or feeling with or without change of the order of words. The added words are adverbs, and the change of order generally puts the subject between the auxiliary and principal verbs as in questions. For example : How are the mighty fallen! This is beautiful, indeed! What a shame it is !

These sentences agree in making their assertions with some strong feeling or emotion, and they are called ExCLAMATORY sentences.

It is to be noticed, however, that while some sentences are exclamatory in form, any sentence- declarative, imperative, interrogative—may become exclamatory by being used with feeling or strong emphasis.

8. To these should be added a fourth variety, that which combines two of the foregoing in the same sentence. These are commonly

(a.) Declarative with interrogative; as, It is right, and shall it not be done?

(6.) Imperative and declarative; as, Be good and you will be happy.

These may be appropriately called MIXED sentences, or they may be described by the separate parts of which they are composed.

9. These kinds of sentences differ in their manner of assertion. The grammatical term which denotes manner of

assertion is mode ; sentences, then, may properly be said to be of the declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory, or mixed mode. 10. Synopis of sentences as to mode : Declarative,

make direct statements, ask ques Sentences Interrogative,

tions directly or indirectly, use the are, as to Imperative,

imperative form of the verb in any MODE, Exclamatory,

sense, make strong or passionate Mixed,

assertions, or combine two of these, affirmatively, negatively, with emphasis, etc., etc.

QUESTIONS.

according
as they

1. What do sentences do? What is the grammarian's term for this? 2. How many kinds of assertion are made ? 3. How do some sentences assert? 4. What are some of the varieties of this sort ? In what do they all agree? What are they called ? 5. What else do some sentences do? What are some varieties of this sort ? In what do they agree? What are they called ? 6. What mode do some other sentences use? In what senses is this used? What other forms of this? In what do all agree? What are they called ? 7. How do some other sentences assert? In what two ways ? In what do these agree? What are they called? What is to be noticed about this kind of sentence? 8. What should be added to these ? What two varieties of them? What may they be called ? 9. How do these kinds of sentences differ? What term expresses the princi ple of classification? What modes of sentences ? 10. Define each, and write out a synopsis.

PRACTICE.

Tell whether each of the following collections of words is a sentence; if not, tell what is wanting to make it such : if it is, tell the mode, definitely.

1. Now mount with me the old oak stair.

2. The moon came up the summer sky. 3. Full fleetly sped the morning hours. 4. Here are no backward glances toward the earth. 5. But why any ceremony at all ? 6. The world is a notched stick. 7. Meantime let us discuss radical problems without fear. 8. O shame, where is thy blush ? 9. Better go under than go down. 10. Give nature a chance to rally! 11. Abolish the so-called evil, and you abolish the good. 12. How I loved that gracious boy! 13. God do so to me and more also. 14. Closely following came—what do you suppose ? 15. What news ? what news ? your tidings tell ! 16. Are you tired of your life ? said he. 17. Is it far away in some region old,

Where the rivers wander o'er sands of gold ? 18. Away went Gilpin ! who but he ?

19. Is it the palm, the ocean-palm, on the Indian sea, by the isles of balm, or is it a ship in the breezeless calm ?

20. Let us follow the sounds; it may be a wanderer starving on the hill.

21. O Rome, that sat upon her seven hills and ruled the world !

22. You are brave only in spots, 0 orthodox friend!
23. What a kaleidoscope of changing views !
24. You're a friend of Cæsar ?
25. This is a discovery, indeed !

26. Unequaled archer ! why was this concealed ? To slay thee, tryant, had I killed my son.

LESSON IX.

FORM AND BASIS OF ELEMENTS.

NOTE.—The form of elements has been presented, in general, in Lesson IV, but it is necessary to discuss it here in the regular development of the subject.

1. The principal or leading idea of an element, together with its relation-word, if any, is the basis of the element and determines its form and office. It is necessary, then, to be able to recognize at once this basis, in order to name and describe an element. It may be defined as the principal idea of the element with its relation, or that on which all the rest of the element depends.

2. As to form, this basis may be a word, a phrase, or a clause, and the element is named accordingly.

3. When a single word is the basis of an element it is always an idea-word. This term, however, must be held to include compound words, and compound forms which taken together express one complex idea; as, book-case, having begun, should have been done.

4. A word-element, then, is one whose basis is a single idea-word, or a compound form which may be taken as one, with or without added words.

5. A phrase is, strictly, any group of words having gram matical relations with each other but not making a statement. It is convenient to use it in analysis in a restricted sense, viz., as meaning a preposition with its object, or a verb in the infinitive mode with its sign to.

6. A phrase-element is one whose basis is a phrase, with or without added words.

7. To prevent ambiguity, it is necessary to assign a defi

nite use to the term clause. A clause is a subject and predicate, which by means of a coördinate connective makes part of a compound sentence, and by means of a subordinate connective makes part of a complex sentence. It is in the latter sense that the term clause-element is generally to be understood.

NOTE.—It is necessary to anticipate the explanation of the terms coördinate and subordinate connective, and complex and compound sentences. It is presumed, however, that they will be sufficiently understood for the purpose of the definition.

8. A clause-element, then, is one whose basis is a connective, subject and predicate, forming part of a complex sentence.

9. Any one of the six elements, excepting the proposition, or subject and predicate combined, may take any of these three forms; that is, the basis of any one may be a word, a phrase, or a clause.

It will be seen in Lesson X what forms the parts of the proposition may take.

QUESTIONS.

1. What is tbe basis of an element? Wha? does it determine? 2. What may be its form? 3. What kind of word may be the basis ? What must be included in this ? 4. What is a word-element ? 5. What is a phrase, strictly? How is it restricted here? 6. What if a phrase-element ? 7. What is a clause ? 8. What is a clauseelement? What form may the six elements take ?

PRACTICE.

Select from the elements which are printed in italics in the passages below the word or words which form the basis, and state the form of the element and what it seems to be joined with, and how.

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