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14. The constituent parts or elements of a sentence are, each, the expression of an idea and its relation to some other idea.

Or, an element is such a word or group of words as expresses one of the constituent ideas of a sentence.

15. Elements may take the form of a word, a phrase, or a clause.

16. Only those ideas among which some natural relation exists can be put into grammatical relations by means of words.

17. Analysis is the separation of a sentence into its thoughtelements, and describes them as to name, structure, and office. It is the opposite of synthesis or composition, which combines elements into sentences.

18. Parsing assigns to each word its individual and distinctive office; analysis does the same with elements.

QUESTIONS.

1. What determines ordinary manner of speech? 2. What is the direct influence of the study of grammar on speech ? How may it be made to influence speech ? Is knowledge of grammar essential to accuracy of speech ? 3. To what age does the study of grammar belong? How does it deal with language? 4. What is the province of grammar? 5. When are sentences in “good English "? What has the grammarian to do with sentences not written in good English? What two things agree in good sentences ? 6. What is grammar? 7. What does its study include? 8. With what does grammar deal ? From this, how may it be defined ? 9. Of what are sentences composed primarily? Into what classes may words be logically divided ? 10. What is the relative number of words in each class ? 11. What is the substance of sentences On what do form and structure depend? 12. How are words joined ? 13. What is the relation of a sentence to a thought? 14. What do elements express ?

15. What form do they take ? 16. What ideas can be put into grammatical relations? 17. What is the relation of analysis and synthesis ? 18. How does parsing differ from Analysis ?

NOTE.- For those who omit the study of these introductory lessons, it will be necessary to repeat some of the foregoing definitions in the lessons which follow.

LESSON VII.

PRELIMINARY DEFINITIONS AND STATEMENTS.

NOTE.—The lessons which follow presuppose knowledge of etymology and syntax, and some practice in analysis. Necessary definitions, and brief explanatory text on each point in analysis, are given, and full synopses of all divisions of the subject are added for reference.

For those who have studied the six introductory lessons, this lesson will be mainly review, but it is essential for all who begin at this point.

1. A SENTENCE is the verbal expression of a thought, or a thought expressed in words. Sentences are known by their making complete statements.

2. Sentences are composed of words so arranged and joined together as to express the sense intended.

3. Words are of three sorts : (a) those which represent ideas, (6) those which represent relations between ideas, and (c) those which stand for other words. These may be called idea-words, relation-words, and substitutes.

NOTE.—The teacher must make such explanations of these terms and those which follow as are necessary. It is supposed that he will have gone thoroughly over the preceding lessons, and he is referred to them for illustrations and practice.

4. Words are joined in several ways:

(a) by being placed together without change; as, this book, we study, James is to go home.

(6) by being placed together with some change of form; as, these books, he learns his lessons, your brother's book has been lost.

(c) by some relation-word, generally a preposition or a conjunction of some kind, standing between them; as, grains of wheat, he lives in New York, he studies with diligence, come when you can.

5. Analysis is the separation of a sentence into its component factors, or elements, and stating their relation to each other.

6. A careful distinction must be made between words and elements of a sentence.

A word is the sign of an idea, or of a relation, or it represents some other word.

An element is a word, or a group of words, expressing an idea and a relation to some other idea.

7. Sentences will be considered as to their mode and structure.

8. Elements will be considered as to their form, rank, office, and structure.

9. The elements of sentences, to be considered in order, are six in number, viz.: the Proposition, the Adjective Element, the Objective Element, the Adverbial Element, the Independent Element, and the Sentence Element.

10. The entire subject of grammatical analysis is embraced in the topics given in the last three statements.

QUESTIONS.

1. What is a sentence ? How are sentences known? 2. How are sentences composed ? 3. What three sorts of words? 4. How

are words joined ? 5. What is analysis ? 6. What distinction between words and elements ? Define an element. 7. How are sentences to be considered ? 8. How are elements to be considered ? 9. How

many elements are there, and bow are they named ? 10. What is the content of grammatical analysis ?

LESSON VIII.

SENTENCES AS WHOLES : THEIR MODE.

1. All who use language understand that sentences make statements. A collection of words which make no statement is generally useless, and all readily recognize the statement if the words used make one. The grammarian's term for “make statements” is assert, or predicate.

2. All statements, or assertions, are not made in the same manner. There are five principal kinds of assertions.

3. Some sentences simply make statements, properly so called: that is, they directly assert facts, or what are taken to be facts; as, The earth shook and trembled, His cohorts were gleaming in purple and gold.

4. There are different forms of this manner of assertion. (a.) Some sentences are affirmative, as those just given. (6.) Some are negative; as, The battle is not to the strong alone. (c.) Some are doubtful; as, perhaps, we shall go. (d.) Some are positive and strong; as, ye shall surely die.

They all agree in making a more or less direct statement of fact, and are called DECLARATIVE sentences.

5. Some sentences ask questions. These are of two forms: (a.) Those which contain some special interrogative word ;

as, WHO goes

there? What shall we say then? Why sit ye here all the day idle? These are generally called indirect questions. (6.) Those which ask by a change of order of the words, generally by putting the verb or its auxiliary first, and the subject second ; as, Is this true? Will ye also go away? Was ever anything so absurd? These are generally called direct questions.

Some sentences are declarative in form, but really ask a question; as, You dare to question my authority? You did do it, then?

All these may take the simple affirmative form, or the negative, or a more positive form, as declarative sentences do... They all agree in that they ask questions in one way or another, and they are called INTERROGATIVE.

6. Some sentences use the imperative mode of the verb. This is used in different senses.

(a.) As giving a command ; as, Do as you are told.

(6.) As giving permission ; as, Go, if you have set your heart on it.

(c.) As giving advice, which is more or less nearly a command ; Be just and fear not; Do not run into danger.

(d.) As entreating; as, Give us this day our daily bread ; Listen to my words.

(e.) As expressing a wish ; as, ( king, live for ever.

Sometimes a command is put into a milder form by using the word let; as, Let your communications be yea, yea ; Let this never be said of you.

Sometimes a sentence is declarative in form, but imperative in fact; as, Thou shalt not kill; You will report as soon as you arrive.

These, again, admit all the variations of affirmative, negative, etc., given above. They all agree in that they use the

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