before the letter standing for the proposition, and compound attributes by the same sign after the letter; thus, + A, A +.

When it is necessary, on account of modifiers which need expression in the formula, to indicate the simple subjects or predicates which make a compound one, let subjects be indicated by S + S, and predicates by P + P; as, S+SA+BP + P; or, S > a +SA+BP + P > b, etc.

No confusion will arise from using this letter, S, for subjects and for sentence elements; in the first use, two or more will be joined by the sign +, and will also be connected by the bar over them, while the latter will always be distinguished from the other parts of the formula by the parenthesis.

If it is thought best, the mode of sentences may be represented by the numerals, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, prefixed to the formula of a sentence to indicate declarative, interrogative, imperative, exclamatory, and mixed sentences, respectively, this being the order in which they were presented. This symbol has not been used here, to avoid too many complications.

It is again repeated that the use of these symbols is optional with the teacher. He may use his own, or these, or none; the substance of the analysis is not affected in any case. They may be convenient; they are not essential.



THE farmer sat in his easy chair,

Smoking his pipe of clay,
While his hale old wife, with busy care,

Was clearing the dinner away;



A sweet little girl with fine blue eyes,
On her grandfather's knee was catching flies.
The old man laid his hand on her head,

With a tear on his wrinkled face;
He thought how often her mother-dead-

Had sat in the self-same place;
And the tear stole down from his half-shut eye;
“Don't smoke," said the child; “how it makes you cry."
The house-dog lay stretched out on the floor,

Where the shade after noon used to steal;
The busy old wife by the open door

Was turning the spinning-wheel;
And the old brass clock on the mantle-tree,
Had plodded along to almost three;
Still the farmer sat in his easy chair,

While close to his heaving breast,
The moistened brow and the cheek so fair,

Of his sweet grandchild were pressed :
His head bent down on her soft hair lay-
Fast asleep were they both that summer day.




1. What farmer? Does the in-phrase denote place or manner of sitting? What actions are going on at the same time? Meaning of hale? Change as many phrases as admit it to some other form. What qualities of girl are mentioned? Of wife? Make two predicates in the first sentence. 2. Change as many phrases as admit it to some other form. Reduce the first two sentences to one. Give the principal parts of all the verbs. How does self-same differ from same? Substitute another word for stole. What is the antecedent of it? 3. What is the simple predicate in the second line? Is the

where-clause adverbial ? Does the by-phrase modify wife or turning? Make the statement of the third and fourth lines in as few words as possible. Mention all the predicates and tell what each denotes. 4. What does still denote ? What other action is at the same time with sat? How fair is so fair? How did his head lie? What does asleep denote? What does fast denote? What is the complex subject of were pressed ? Write this verse in the order of prose. Mention all the participles of concomitant action in the passage. Mention all the compound words. How many sentences in it as it stands ? Give each simple proposition by itself.

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1. It was a pleasant morning in the time 2. When the leaves fall; and the bright sun shone out 3. As when the morning stars first sang together; 4. So quietly and calmly fell the light 5. Upon a world at rest. One hour stole on, 6. And then another of the morning, calm 7. And still as Eden ere the birth of man. 8. Then the old man, and his descendants, went 9. Together to the house of God. All knelt 10. In attitude of prayer, and then the hymn 11. Sincere in its low melody, went up 12. To worship God. The white-haired pastor rose, 13. And looked upon his flock, and with an eye 14. That told his interest, and voice that spoke, 15. In tremulous accents, eloquence like Paul's, 16. He lent Isaiah's fire to the truths 17. Of revelation, and persuasion came

18. Like gushing waters from his lips, till hearts 19. Unused to bend were softened, and the eye 20. Unwont to weep sent forth the willing tear.

N. P. Willis.


stole on.

1. What is the subject of was ? Express the *** fall in one word. 2. What leaves ? What sun? 3. How did the sun shine out? What stars ? Supply the ellipsis between as and when. Is sang transitive? 4. What is the connection between this and the preceding? 5. Express at rest in one word. Substitute another expression for

6. What does calm modify? What morning? 7. What case is Eden? What part of speech is ere? 8. Who went? Is the made definite by any thing in the extract ? 9. How did they go ? Whither did they go? All who? 10. How did they kneel? 11. How is the hymn described ? In what respect sincere ? 12. What does to worship denote? What three things did the pastor do? 13. What sort of noun is flock ? Has it a plural? Write the declension of eye. 14. What told ? Has interest a plural ? What other form of spoke? Which is the better ? 15. Compare tremulous. Like Paul's what? What does like modify? 16. What are the objects of lent? 17. How did persuasion come? 18. Is gushing compared ? Does the till-clause denote time? Does it denote any thing else? 19. What part of speech is unused? Syntax of to bend? 20. Of to weep? Give another verb for sent forth.


1. IT vas not much more than eight o'clock when he went up the stone steps to the door of Tessa's room. 2. Usually she heard his entrance into the house, and ran to meet him, but not to-night; and when he opened the door he saw

the reason. 3. A single dim light was burning above the dying fire, and showed Tessa in a kneeling attitude by the head of the bed where the child lay. 4. Her head had fallen aside on the pillow, and her brown rosary, which usually hung above the pillow over the picture of the Madonna and the golden palm branches, lay in the loose grasp of her right hand. 5. She had gone fast asleep over her beads. 6. Tito stepped lightly across the little room, and sat down close to her. 7. She had probably heard the opening of the door as part of her dream, for he had not been looking at her two moments before she opened her eyes. 8. She opened them without any start, and remained quite motionless looking at him, as if the sense that he was there smiling at her shut out any impulse which could disturb that happy passiveness. Romola, Chap. XXXIV.


1. What is the subject? The attribute? Can these be joined properly? What does the up phrase denote? The to-phrase? What does than connect? 2. Is usually compared ? What does to meet denote? What kind is the whole sentence? What kind is each part? The reason of what? 3. What does single modify? How did the light show Tessa ? Where did it show her? 4. Is the whereclause adverbial ? Is the which clause descriptive? What does over show the relation of? What does golden modlify? 5. What is the simple predicate? Does the over-phrase denote place ? 6. Is close adjective or adverb? 7. What does probably modify? What does as connect? What is the for-clause the reason of ? What is the relation of time between the before-clause and the preceding one? 8. How did she open them? What is the simple predicate of the and sentence? What does looking modify ? Supply the ellipsis between as and if. What sense? What does smiling modify?

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