1. Copulative, AND, with auxiliaries too, manner,

besides, therefore, etc.

2. Adversutive, BUT, with auxiliaries yet, never

theless, etc.


ing no part of substance of a sentence,

connecting parts of

coördinate rank,

(OR, correspond

ing with EITHER.

auxiliaries else,
3. Alternatives,

NOR, corres-, otherwise, etc.
ponding with


tences into various relations with each other, and others, in addition to this, entering into the substance of the sentence

3. A full synopsis of the latter is given. as subject, object, etc.

Connecting words, or connectives, are

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1. What is said of the importance of connecting words ? What point is to be noticed ? 2. What are their general varieties ? What is the special use of the first ? of the second ? of the third ? 3. Give a synopsis of the third.



1. ALL the elements of sentences have now been presented, and most of their varieties. It would never be quite safe to say that all possible modes of structure and combination have been exhibited. The sentence admits of endless variations, and scarcely any two are alike in all respects, unless they are manufactured for the purpose of being alike. But the essential forms have been given, and it remains only to present them at one view for reference.

The selections in the closing lessons are made with a view to presenting illustrations of all these elements and their combinations. Some of the elements and some forms of their combination occur, of course, much more frequently than others. It may be useful practice to find in books illustrations of as many varieties as possible before proceeding to this general analysis. It is better to find than to compose them, because they are then seen to be natural modes of expression, whereas those which are composed for illustration are likely to be more or less forced and without meaning.

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subject or a noun in any

relation, having no gram- modifying modifying the predi- modifying the

cate or any part of
the sentence admit.

ting it,
the sen
tence as

a whole,
unatical relation
with the sen-

IV. the ob-
jective ele-


which may be


object of ac-
tion, or other
verbal comple-
tion, etc.,

Synopsis of grammatical elements.

in the form of a word, a phrase, or a clause.

V, the sentence


various circum-
stances of the
whole asser-


VI. the indepen

dent element,

person or thing addressed, cause, time, etc., expressed absolutely, etc.,)

QUESTIONS. 1. What is said of grammatical elements? 2. Write out a synopsis of them.



The extracts following are intended for general review as well as for practice in analysis and parsing. The analysis should be thorough and exhaustive, and the questions on the text should be extended and varied to meet the requirements of the class. Let the words and phrases in italics, at least. be parsed.

It will be useful to give here for reference a



A, B, C, etc., represent independent propositions. a, b, c, etc., represent dependent propositions.

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, written above and at the right of a, b, c, or of elements written out in words, etc., indicate respectively, adjective, adverbial, direct objective, indirect objective, and double objective modifiers.

The vinculum, or bar over a succession of symbols, brings all under the same construction.

(a) indicates an element included within the parts of another element.

[ ] includes parts not in the text.

+, with the connective written above, indicates the connoction of coördinate propositions.

>, with the connective written above, indicates the connection of subordinate propositions with the principal.

A punctuation mark, such as is found in the text, supplies the place of a sign of connection.

That-A, or how-A, etc., indicates a proposition with a clause-subject.

A-that, or A-how, etc., the same with a clause-attribute.

Quoted objects may be represented by the usual formula for their sentences, included in quotation marks, the sign of subordination > being placed before the quotation, the preceding or following part of the sentence being indicated in the usual way.

Quoted subjects or attributes may be represented in the same way, when they are sentences ; that is, write the formula for the sentence, enclose it in quotation marks, and place it before or after the symbols which represent the other part of the sentence.

Independent elements may be represented by the letter I, marked off by commas; if any contains a clause, it can be added in the usual way; as, I > a.

Sentence elements, if words or phrases, may be indicated by the letter S enclosed in a parenthesis ; if a proposition or sentence, by the usual notation ; in the latter case, this element may be separated from the rest of the formula by a dash or dashes.

Dependent clauses corresponding with other clauses may be indicated by writing the corresponding words over the sign; thus, >.

Compact sentences, generally consisting of two parts only, though each may be complex, may be indicated by doubling the formula ; thus, A BA< B, or, A > a > B> b A >a<B> b.

Compound subjects may be indicated by placing a small +

as as

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