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charges = he entered the room as [he would do, on the concession or assumption that] though he was, etc. As, then, connects the omitted clause to the preceding, and if or though connects its clause with the omitted as-clause.
19. Two connectives belonging to clauses which are both expressed may come together in the sentence by the order of their arrangement, without implying an ellipsis; as, I hear that if you succeed you will not return.
20. It and there, are put before the verb, when for any reason the subject is put after it. For example, It is evident that you are wrong. It is only the formal subject; that is, it stands in the place of the subject, the latter being out of its natural place before the verb, and the verb not being allowed to stand alone. The real subject is the that-clause.
Again; There is good reason to believe. Here reason is the subject; there simply fills its place before the verb, which in these cases is an attributive verb, denoting existence. Of course, these words have no syntax; they are not signs of ideas or of relations, nor are they substitutes : they are mere stop-gaps. They are generally called expletives.
1. What part of speech is like? What is it not ? What is its general meaning ? 2. What is its use in the sentences given? 3. Give a sentence in which it is an adverb. Is it ever the connective of an adverbial clause? What is joined with it to give it this office ? 4. How shall the expressions following this word be disposed of? What other word has the same construction? 5. What rule of Syntax does usage justify? 6. What part of speech is worth? Give examples. Give and explain an example of its use as a verb. 7. Why are these words not prepositions ? 8. To what are even and indeed joined ? 9. What is the significations of even? 10. Of indeed ?
11. What parts of speech are they in these uses? 12. What part of speech is only? Give an illustration of its use as an adjective. 13. The same, as an adverb. 14. With what does it correspond ? Explaiu by examples. 15. Give a further illustration of its use. 16. How are only and also parsed in such sentences ? 17. What is the meaning and use of just ? 18. Explain the combinations of connectives as if and as though. 19. How, otherwise, may two other connectives come together? 20. What is the use of it and there in some sentences ?
Notice, as you are reading, examples of the use of these words, and bring them into class from time to time. Do the same with any other peculiar word or construction you find.
CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES COMPLETED.
NOTE.—The classification of sentences can now be completed. Four varieties were considered in Lesson XXXV, namely: Simple, Partially Compound, Compound, and Complex. To them are to be added these :
1. Sentences, of any structure otherwise, which contain a direct quotation.
2. (a.) Those whose parts are strongly united by a connective in each. For example : Though all seems lost, yet we must stand by the fort. Here are two propositions and two connectives, though, looking forward to the following clause, and yet, looking back to the preceding clause. Neither of these can, strictly, be taken by itself; each is
principal to the other, and each is dependent on the other ; that is, they are mutually principal and dependent.
(6.) Again : Either you are mistaken or I am deceived. Here are two clauses and two corresponding connectives, as is the case with those asserting proportionate equality.
3. The distinction between these and either compound or complex sentences is two-fold; (a) there are two connectives, one in each clause ; (6) neither part of the sentence can be taken by itself.
4. These are clearly, then, a distinct kind of sentence in their structure, and from the fact that their clauses are more closely bound together than in other modes of structure, they may be called COMPACT.
5. These sentences are not numerous in ordinary writing. They may be expressed-taking the two given above-by
though yet doubling the formula thus : A > BAB.
6. A remaining variety is the opposite of the last ; namely, those whose component parts are entire sentences related in thought, but without any grammatical connective.
For example : It is sown a natural body ; it is raised a spiritual body. Here are two propositions within one period, or full stop. They might be written as a compound sentence with a connective. But they stand together in the relation of contrast and need no connective, as they have none. As the preceding were called compact, these may be called loose.
7. It must be understood that they are not loose in the sense of wanting anything necessary to their proper structure, but only that they lack the grammatical sign of connection which usually stands between related propositions.
They will require no addition to the formulas. 8. There must be added, then, to the former classification
these three, which will exhaust all the ordinary kinds of sentences ; viz., sentences containing a direct quotation, compact sentences, and loose sentences.
9. Some sentences have no strict grammatical structure. Their parts are so involved and complicated and are so full of anacoluths that they elude all regular process of analysis. They are not without meaning, but only loose and disjointed in form; the only thing the grammarian can do with them is to let them alone. 10. Synopsis of kinds of sentences ;
I. SIMPLE, containing one proposition. II. PARTIALLY COMPOUND, containing a proposition with one or more of its parts compound.
III. COMPLEX, containing one or more principal and
one or more subordinate clauses. Sentences,
IV. COMPOUND, containing two or more entire sen. tences, with one connective, generally, between each
V. COMPACT, containing two parts corresponding or of
contrasted with each other by means of a connective in propositions,
VI. LOOSE, or two or more seutences not separated by a full stop, with no connective beween them.
VII. Sentences, of any structure otherwise, containing a direct quotation as constituent part of the whole.
VIII. Sentences not fully or rightly constructed, and so incapable of formal analysis.
NOTE. What varieties of sentences have already been considered! 1. What is the first addition to be made ? 2. What is the second ? Give examples, and explain their structure. (6) What are other forms of these? 3. What is the distinction between these and complex and compound sentences ? 4. What may they be named ? 5. Are they numerous ? How may they be expressed in the formula ?
6. What is a remaining variety with examples ? What may they be called? 7. In wbat sense are they loose? 8. What kinds, then, must be added to those already given? 9. What about the structure of some sentences? What can be done with them in grammatical analysis? 10. Write a synopsis of sentences as to structure, and find examples of each.
GENERAL VIEW OF CONNECTIVES.
1. CONNECTING words are of very great importance in sentences. No sentence can be constructed without at least that which joins attribute and subject, and nearly every sentence, however simple in expression, contains others. The point to be constantly noticed is that ideas, whether expressed by words, by groups of words, or by propositions, are put into an infinite variety of relations by means of the words which join them together into sentences.
2. The varieties of connectives—using the term in its most general sense—are: (a) copulas and copulative verbs; (6) prepositions, and (c) connectives strictly so called. The general distinction among these, should be held clearly in mind ; namely, that the first stand between attribute and subject to show the existence of one in the other; the second stand between a word or group of words following and some antecedent term on which the former depends, and show some relation between these two; the third connect words and elements of all kinds into sentences, some of them doing no other office than to connect, and so to put parts of sen