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these terms is extended-for the propositions are not connected by either coördinate or subordinate connectives.
8. These sentences, then, are not to be classed with any heretofore considered. They want a name, and a symbol in the notation. They may be called simple or complex sentences—as they may be apart from this element-containing a quotation. The quotation will, by this naming, be taken as a sentence to be described and analyzed by itself. Quoted objects, if sentences, may be indicated by putting the usual notation for representing that kind of sentence into quotation marks and the sign of subordination > between it and the proposition which it follows, without any connective word. Subjects or attributes may be indicated by the same notation placed before or after the letter standing for the rest of the sentence, without any sign of connection.
Notice that these quotations follow a verb of saying, but that verb is not always the verb to say. Any verb which implies saying may take a direct quotation as its object; as, he declared, “I will do it;" he asked, "Where are you going;” he demanded, “what will you give;" he promised, “I will do it all.”
1. What two kinds of quotations ? How do they differ? 2. What is the office and connection of each ? 3. Give examples. 4. How is the change made? 5. What kind of clauses do indirect quotations make? What kind of sentences, then? 6. What are direct quotations? 7. What is the peculiarity of sentences containing them? Why are they not simple ? 8. What name may be given to them? How may they be expressed iu the formulas ?
Besides analyzing the following sentences in full, let the direct quotations be changed to indirect in all cases which admit of such change.
PRACTICE. 1. “All is going on well,” said one of the readers, as I entered the room.
FORMULA. “A” <B>a?. 2. I remarked that peace was the first wish of my heart, but that no people could be reproached with contending too boldly for freedom. 3. “The sentiment is Roman,” was the reply
= "A" B. > 4. “Your dejection is natural enough,” said the emperor, " as you have so lately lost your brother” = "A" <(B) > "a?.”
5. I was often ready to ask, “ Can man be unhappy in the midst of these things?”
6. “Little I ever thought,” sighed the old steward, “ of seeing that sight.” = “A” <(B) > “A.”
17. “There is an attack on either the enemy's camp or the city,” I exclaimed to my companion.
8. “The tower contains a prisoner,” said she, tremblingly, “who must be saved this night ; for to-morrow at day-breaki is bis dreadful hour.”
9. “There,” soliloquized he, as he ran his eye down the epistle, “I think some of you will be wiser for my
labors.” FORMULA. “I”<A > a? <“B.”
IS a< 10. “In the name of all the wonders of the world,” exclaimed he, are you here too ?”
11. “Three of them,”: I heard him mutter, as we gradually worked our way toward the light, “and perhaps more.”
12. I started forward exclaiming, “ If there is a man among you ready to stake his life for his country he will follow me instantly. = A > “a? < B.”
13. “But has the assault been actually made ? or is there force enough within to repel it?” interrupted I.
14. I involuntarily uttered aloud, “ At last, I shall enter Jerusalem in triumph.”
15. I heard Jubal shout in a loud voice, “Enter Jerusalem and you are undone."
16. The slave answered angrily, “No need to tell me ; 1 know.”
17. “See,” exclaimed the prophet, “how I despise your threats.”
SOME MISCELLANEOUS WORDS.
A FEW peculiar or difficult words are given in this lesson.
1. Like is either an adjective or an adverb, but not a preposition ; the general meaning of the word is equal or similar.
2. In, He is like his brother, like is a predicate adjective, is like is the simple predicate of the sentence. In, He looks like his brother, it is the same.
2. In, He acts like his brother, like is an adverb modifying acts. The expanded expression might be written, He acts in a manner similar to that in which his brother acts. But like never stands at the head of a clause of manner; it is not English to say he acts like his brother does. When a clause follows like, the connective as is added ; as, Like as a father pitieth his children, etc.
4. The difficulty, if any, is with the phrase following this word. The simplest way is to regard expressions such as
his brother above, as modifying like without a word to show their relation to it. They are nearer to being indirect objects than any other named element. The preposition to may be supplied, as is generally done, but it is not more necessary than in the case of deep, or high. The same is true of the word near.
5. Usage justifies a rule of Syntax like this: Words which denote likeness, nearness, dimension and price are joined directly to the words which they modify.
6. Worth is an adjective or a noun. As a qualifying adjective it takes the form worthy; as a predicate adjective without a preposition following, it takes the form worth, and is followed directly by a noun, according to the rule above; as, the book is worth a dollar.
Worth is a verb only in such expressions—now very uncommon -as woe worth the day, in which the verb is in the imperative mode, and the noun is a dative, or indirect object, and the whole = woe be to the day.
7. Like, near, and worth are not prepositions, because they express quality and not simple relation, as such words as of, in, by, etc., do.
8. Even and indeed, when not sentence-elements, are generally joined to the words which they directly accompany. Each has two meanings.
9. Even denotes, first, exactly; as, He said even so. Second, it expresses something unusual, or not to be expected ; as, John even had his lesson; that is, this is an unusual occurrence.
10. Indeed denotes in fact, in truth, and in doing so makes a concession; as, This, indeed, is true = in point of fact, this is true and is granted as true.
11. Indeed and even, in the senses given, are adverbs.
12. Only is used both as adjective and adverb. As an adjective it is used as a modifier, not as predicate; as, This is the only book I have = I have this book and no other.
13. As an adverb, the difficulty for the learner is to tell what it modifies; as, I give this only as an opinion = I give this for an opinion and for nothing more, or for an opinion merely. In this example it seems to modify the words as an opinion.
14. With the negative not, it often corresponds with the combination but also; as, He not only sings but also plays = he does not sing and this only, but he plays also. Not-only modifies sings and anticipates some other statement to follow; but connects the two clauses, and also, by pointing back to not-only assists in the connection.
15. Again : Not only is this which I have now said true, but also it is only half the truth I have to tell. Not only puts the whole complex first part of the sentence into correspondence with the second part introduced by but also.
16. How to parse only and also ? Only, as an adverb, modifi its clause and anticipates the following clause ; also is an auxiliary connective, helping to bind the two parts together by pointing back to the not-only-clause.
17. Just is another restrictive adverb, meaning exactly, precisely, and modifying whatever it restricts. For example; I want just one; I want just as many as you have; I did it just for fun ; I will do just as I please.
18. As if and as though.
These combinations of connectives imply an omission of a clause. For example; He acted as if he were insane, equals, when expanded, He acted as [he would act] if he were insane. He entered the room as though he was ignorant of all