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5. The master of Ravenswood cannot, I am sure, object to your presence.
6. But, in truth, there was small cause for joy.
8. All the more, however, for this amiable tenderness do we need the counterpoise of a strong sense of justice.
9. Why, this is all wrong.
10. Besides all other reason for gladness, we now heard of a great victory over the Indians.
11. To her great surprise, he soon entered the room.
12. He was, by the acknowledgment of all, the best speaker in the house.
13. I, for my part, will not consent to this. 14. For aught I know, it may all be true.
15. His voice, from being weak and tremulous, soon became full and firm.
USES OF THE WORD THAT IN SENTENCES.
The great variety of uses of the words that and as will be better understood by being presented at one view.
1. That is, primarily, a demonstrative word ; i.e., it accompanies the pointing out of something with the finger. With this general meaning it is used :
2. As a simple definitive adjective, or as—as some grammars name it-a demonstrative adjective pronoun; as, I want that book, not this.
3. In this use it may either accompany its noun, or repre
sent it; as, that book is mine, or that [book, anything] is mine. In the former case it is used as an adjective; in the latter as a pro-noun; hence it is called by some a pronominal adjective, or an adjective which may take the place of a noun.
4. As a relative pronoun, representing a preceding noun to which it refers ; as, lend me the book that you promised.
5. As a pro-sentence, or sentence-article, standing before a sentence and with it making a clause used as a constituent part of a sentence. The clause so formed
be substantive, adjective, or adverbial in its use. For example; You must prove that—you are right. That-he is guilty is obvious.
6. Notice that the structure of all these clauses is the same, whatever their office, namely, the word that and a proposition; they are named from their doing the office of noun, adjective, or adverb.
19. Notice carefully that the use of this word before a proposition is essentially the same as the use of the before a noun. It should be called a sentence-article ; it is generally called an introductory connective.
8. In its adjective and adverbial uses it corresponds with the, or some word of quality, degree, etc. ; as, lend me the book that I want; he was such a liar that no one believed him; he went away [to the end) that he might avoid, etc.
9. That is used, then, as an adjective, a pronoun, a relative, and a sentence-article introducing substantive, adjective, and adverbial clauses.
1. Wbat is that primarily? 2. How is it used first? 3. What two specifications of this use? 4. What is its next use? 5. What is its use as an article? 6. What is to be noticed about the struc
ture of all that-clauses? 7. How does this compare with the common article? 8. With what does that correspond ? 9. Give all the uses of that.
For practice of this lesson, find five illustrations of each use of the word.
USES OF THE WORD AS.
1. This word expresses, in general, the idea of comparison or correspondence. It is an adverb of indefinite meaning when it is joined to verb or adjective, and its meaning is made definite by the element following, introduced by the same word, which in this use—that is, as a clause connective -is a conjunction.
With this general meaning, it is used to denote :
2. General similarity or agreement of what is expressed in its own clause with what is asserted in the principal clause; as, he did as he chose ; in which doing and choosing agree.
3. Correspondence of action, quality, etc., between the two assertions of the sentence; as, he can do as well as he chooses ; in which ability to do and choosing to do correspond.
4. Correspondence with words of indefinite quality or description in the principal clause, chiefly such and same; as, he is such a student as we like to have in school; this is the same reason as I have given before. In these cases it is customary and convenient to consider as to be a relative pronoun. Really there is an ellipsis of a clause after as in
such sentences; thus, he is such a student as [those are whom we like to have in school.
5. The part connected by as may be abridged to an infinitive phrase ; thus, he behaved so as to convince us all = so that he convinced us all ; his words were such as to alarm us = such that they alarmed us. In such constructions as con. nects the phrase instead of the clause.
6. Apposition ; thus, he, as a friend of both parties gave this advice; I come to you as a friend ; I appoint you as monitor. 7. As an index of examples or illustrations; in this way
it is used in almost every paragraph of these lessons.
8. To recapitulate: as may be an adverb; a conjunction joining clauses of manner, etc., to a principal clause, those which compare one manner, etc., with another, and abridged propositions doing the same; a relative pronoun after such and same; an index of apposition; a sign of examples or illustrations following; a prefix or introduction of certain
expressions difficult to classify, such as, he has always, as every one knows, etc.; a suspension bridge, as it is called ; confined, as we are, to one point.
1. What is the general idea of the word as ? What part of speech is it? 2. What is the first specification ? 3. The next one given ? 4. What is its use after such and same? 5. What may the as-clause become? Wbat does as then connect ? 6. Give examples of its use to show apposition. 7. What further use has it? 8. Recapitulate these uses.
Give examples difficult of classification.
For practice find illustrations of each of these uses.
1. QUOTATIONS are of two kinds, direct and indirect. The former quote the exact words of speaker or writer, the latter their substance. All quotations follow verbs of saying.
2. Indirect quotations are prefaced by the word that ; direct quotations are joined to the verb directly: both are generally direct objects of the verb with which they are related, though either may be the subject or attribute.
3. Examples : He said, “I will go," quotes directly. He said that he would go, quotes indirectly. My father said to
“ You will do as I tell you,” is changed, in indirect quotation, to, My father said that I should do as he told me.
4. Notice that the change is made by introducing the connective that and making necessary modifications of persons, modes, and tenses.
5. Indirect quotations make substantive clauses and, therefore, complex sentences, and need no special discussion, and require no change in the notation used.
6. Direct quotations are entire sentences, and they may be simple, complex, or compound, in themselves.
7. The peculiarity of direct quotations is, that they are sentences within sentences. He declared, “I will keep my word,” is a sentence as a whole; the quotation is a sentence by itself, coming into the entire sentence without the aid or need of a conjunction. The entire sentence cannot be simple, because it contains two propositions. It cannot be either compound or complex-unless the signification of