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elements, is only an accommodation of terms. They are independent of the rest of the sentence, and are called elements only for convenience.

5. (c.) Exclamations and words directly connected with them; for example : 0 everlasting shame! that I should live to see an hour like this! As these stand, shame has no syntax and that connects nothing; the entire expressions are grammatically independent of the sentences to which they might be attached. They are, of course, abridged expressions which might be expanded, but the common and simpler disposal of them is to regard them as independent.

6. (d.) Expressions purposely left disconnected from the rest of the sentence, or dropped from their place because the structure of the sentence is, in the progress of its composition, changed from its original intention. For example: The fathers, where are they? I will no longer—but why do I

repeat this?

17. These elements or parts of sentences are numerous and important enough to be indicated in the formulas. Let the letter I, separated from the rest of the formula by commas, represent these independent elements, whether they contain much or little. If a word of direct address or other word is modified by a clause, indicate it in the usual way, as in the first sentence below.

QUESTIONS.

1. To what, according to former statements, are parts of sentences added ? How many modifications of this ? 2. What is the first ? Illustrate by examples. 3. In the case of a noun and a participle, together independent of other words, wbich of the two has no syntax? 4. What is the second ? Illustrate by examples. 5. What is the third ? Illustrate by examples. 6. What is the fourth ? Illustrate by examples. 7. How may these be represented in the formulas?

SENTENCES FOR PRACTICE.

1.

Our fathers' God ! from out whose hand
The centuries fall like grains of sand,
We meet to-day, united, free,
And loyal to our land and thee.

whose FORMULA. I> a', A.

2. What ! poison ! has the villain escaped me ? = I, I, A.

3. O heaven ! in this cruel grasp was the key of thy dungeon, my child !

4. I gazed round the armory; there was no door and yet

this man

and FORMULA. A; B + I.

5. The obstacle once removed, we saw the source of the light-spectacle of horror ! the great prison of Rome was on fire.

[blocks in formation]

6. Good evening ; can you give a traveler a night's lodging?

7. Who are you, my strangely gifted guest ?
8. Huzza for old Stony Phiz! there he comes.
9. Silence all ! we shall soon know our fate.
10. Thou, too, sail on, O Ship of State !

Sail on, O Union, strong and great!
11. Hail, holy light, offspring of heav'n first-born !
12. Ah Eloquence! thou wast undone,

Wast from thy native country driven,
When tyranny eclipsed the sun

And blotted out the stars of heaven.

LESSON LVI.

SENTENCE ELEMENTS.

1. THE second modification alluded to in the last lesson is this : sometimes a word, or a group of words, modifies the meaning, not of any part of a sentence, but of the sentence as a whole. They differ from independent elements in that they give a different shade to the assertion of the sentence, while the former express something preliminary or additional or incomplete. They may for this reason be called sentence modifiers or elements.

The following are the principal specifications:

2. (a) Certain adverbs or phrases, commonly called modal adverbs, or adverbs which modify the manner of assertion rather than the manner of action ; as, verily, truly, without doubt, etc. These are generally words of certainty or doubt. For example : Verily, verily, I say unto you. This is, certainly, the best course to take. These words modify the whole sentence, and not any one word or group of words in it.

3. (6) Certain adverbs whose use is rather logical than grammatical, serving to show a connection of thought be. tween sentences or parts of sentences. For example; It ie evident, then, that the prisoner is guilty. Now, faith is the substance of things hoped for. Nor, indeed, was his soldiership a matter of derision.

Under this head may come certain words used as auxiliary connectives, when they are not directly connected with any preceding sentence or part of sentence. For example; He

was conscious, also, of a change.

change. I beseech you, therefore, by all you hold dear.

4. (c) Certain words which generally serve to join a clause to the sentence, but sometimes do duty for the clause which it is not necessary to insert. For example; I will not, however, enter into this matter. You can't beat me, though. It does move, nevertheless.

5. (d) Expressions—generally prepositions and objectswhich cannot be said to modify one part of a sentence more than another, but do change the tone of the whole statement. For example; I don't believe it, for all that. Between you and me, this was how it was. In spite of the absence of these two great men, the box in which the managers stood contained a great array of eloquent speakers.

6. (e) Certain expressions put before, or thrown in between, the parts of a sentence, to soften or to strengthen the statements, or to anticipate or prepare the way for what follows, etc. For example ; This, to tell the truth at once, is what I came for.

He was a mansooth to saywho could · not keep a shilling. He went on, as it were, from Dan to Beersheba. To begin at the beginning, my client was a poor farmer.

7. It is difficult oftentimes to distinguish these elements from others. It will generally be a matter of individual judgment whether a certain group of words modifies this or that. No absolute or general test can be given. The question is, does it seem to you—to go more naturally with this part or that part, or with the whole of it, or with none. It must not be the habit to assign a group of words to this head to save close inspection of it; it must be assigned here only after such inspection. Not all parts separated by dashes, for example, must, by that sign, be taken for sentence

elements; such parts are often easily recognized as some other element.

8. It is necessary that these elements should have some symbol; let them be designated by the letter S enclosed in a parenthesis, (S). They can then be separated into their constituent parts, if they are phrases or propositions, as other elements are.

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the second modification alluded to ? What is a sentence-element ? 2. What is the first specification, with illustrations ? 3. What is the second ? Give examples of this use of words, sometimes used as auxiliary connectives. 4. Give the next specification. 5. Give the next. 6. What other form of this element ? 7. How shall it be determined whether a given element belongs to the sentence? 8. How may these elements be written in the formulas?

SENTENCES FOR PRACTICE.

Ask carefully about each of the sentences following, whether any sentence-element is in it. The point will be to distinguish on the one hand, between these and independent elements, and on the other, between these and modifiers of some distinct part of the sentence.

1. On the whole, I rather think I succeeded in astonishing both.

2. I remember their looks of amazement-for they had never seen anything of the sort in all their lives—as I swept to and fro in the magnificent robes.

3. At any rate, they said nothing to the contrary.

4. To me—so deficient was I in rhetorical taste-it sounded like a crash of broken crockery.

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