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5. Find in the sentence the following: a double object, a participial modifier of a noun, an absolute participial element. What does shaking modify ? etc., etc.

LESSON LIV.

SOME OTHER FORMS OF ABRIDGMENT.

ABRIDGMENT of propositions, resulting in dependent or independent participial clauses, was presented in the last lesson ; some other forms of abridgment will complete the topic in this lesson.

1. Substantive clauses introduced by that are changed to substantive phrases.

(a.) For example : Subject clause, That he was wrong is evident. Dropping the connective and changing the copula to a participle and putting the subject into grammatical relation with the words as they now stand by changing it to the possessive case, the sentence becomes His having been wrong is evident.

(6.) The same is true of that-clauses used as attributes ; as, My reason is that he deceives me = My reason is his deceiving me.

(c.) That-clauses are sometimes abridged to a preposition followed by a double object; as, That James should lie is surprising = For James to lie is surprising. If the subject is an indefinite or general one, the infinitive mode without a subject may be used in the abridgment; That one should lie is surprising = To lie is surprising.

(d.) That-clauses used as objects direct or indirect, or those of mere verbal completion; as, he told me that he was

intending to go = of his intending to go. He believed that the man was telling the truth = in the man's telling the truth. He was informed that the messenger had arrived = of the messenger's arrival. He was aware that it was late = of its being late.

(e.) Sometimes the objective clause is abridged to the form of a double object; as, I believe that it is he = it to be him. When the subject of both clauses is the same, it is shortened to a simple infinitive; as, I wish that I might go = I wish

to go.

2. Clauses which modify nouns; as, the news that he had arrived surprised me = the news of his arrival, etc. The reason that (or why) I did so = the reason of my doing so.

3. Clauses denoting purpose are abridged, or rather changed to, infinitives denoting purpose ; as, he went that he might improve his health = to improve his health, or, in order to, etc.

4. Other clauses admit this form of abridgment; as, The question whether we shall go, = the question of our going.

. We were delayed because he did not come = because of, by reason of, his not coming.

5. Still another form of abridgment is the simple omission of subject and copula ; as, Though he was young, he was wise, may be written, Though young, he was wise. This,

, however, is best analyzed by supplying the omitted parts, because they obviously make the construction which is intended by the writer of such sentences.

6. There are, then, three principal forms of abridgment : (a) those which, omitting the connective and the copula, leave a participial element, as in the preceding lesson ; (6) those which omit the connective, change the verb to some form of verbal noun, and change the subject to the posses

sive case; (c) those which change the connective to a preposition, the verb to a verbal noun, and the subject to the possessive. For example: (a) when shame is lost, all virtue is lost = shame being lost, etc., or, the foreman repeated his orders and withdrew = the foreman, having repeated his orders, withdrew; (b) that you are wrong is clear = your being wrong is clear ; (c) I did not know that he is here = of his being here.

The abridgments of this lesson only reduce propositions to the form of elements already presented, and call for no additional symbol in the notation used.

NOTE.—Bear in mind that if the subjects of the two predicates are the same, one of them is omitted in the abridgment.

QUESTIONS. 1. To what are substantive clauses introduced by that changed ? (a) How are subject-clauses abridged? Attributive-clauses? (c) To what other form are that-clauses sometimes abridged ? (d and e) How are that-clauses used as objects abridged ? How are clauses which modify nouns changed ? 4. How are clauses of purpose changed ? 5. What is another form of abridgment? 6. Recapitulate the three principal forms of abridgment, with examples.

SENTENCES FOR PRACTICE. In the following sentences, without analyzing, abridge all the clauses which admit such treatment, and expand the phrases which can be expanded into propositions, explaining in full all changes made.

1. I wondered why it was not done.

2. Aladdin now requested that he might be permitted to wait on the princess.

3. Tell him that on these conditions I am ready to receive him.

4. That you have wronged me doth appear in this.

5. He had been told that he might safely meddle with anything in the garden. [Can the that-clause be abridged here ?]

6. We do not need to be taught the lesson that a restless mind is not a reliable mind. [Can this be abridged ?]

7. I had not learned of your promotion. 8. I am not aware that there is such a place. 9. The man who is wise will shun evil. 10. I do not wish to hear any more of your being sorry. 11. Tell me not that life is an empty dream. 12. Who would have thought that it was he? 13. They threw down their guns and hastily retreated.

14. The next day, the provisions being all gone, Aladdin took one of the plates and went to a silversmith that he might sell it.

15. The merchant thinking the owner ignorant of its value offered a small sum for it.

16. Aladdin thought that he had made a good bargain. [Can this be abridged ?]

17. When the money was spent, Aladdin called the lamp to his aid.

18. I admit that my wish is very bold.

19. She was slow to do so, being very anxious to obtain pardon first.

20. Aladdin assured her of his readiness to give his son to her daughter in marriage.

21. I could not doubt that you are the man. 22. I could not doubt that you are he.

23. I was under some apprehension that my provisions might be devoured on shore.

24. I made a tent with some poles which I cut for the purpose.

25. Do not admit that it is impossible.

LESSON LV.

INDEPENDENT ELEMENTS.

1. It was said in a former lesson that all parts of sentences are modifiers of either subject or predicate. Two modifications of this general statement must be made.

2. The first is that some words or groups of words have no grammatical connection with any other part of the sentence, and are, therefore, independent. By this is not meant that they contribute nothing to the sentence, but that, while the words composing them have grammatical relations among themselves, the basis of the element has no connection with any part of the sentence. For example : in, my question having been at length answered to my satisfaction, I will proceed, every word of the participial element finds its syntax within the element except question, the principal term ; that has no syntax : all the words, then, grouped about it have, as a whole, no syntax : the element is independent of the sentence.

There are four specifications of this element.

3. (a.) The noun and participle in abridged constructions like the preceding. These have already been sufficiently considered.

4. (6.) Words of direct address, with what is added to them; for example: 0 thou that hearest prayer, to thee shall all flesh come; My dear and honored friend, etc. In these all the other words are grouped about thou and friend, but these have no syntax, unless calling them independent case, gives them a syntax. This phrase, like that of independent

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