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LESSON LII.

COMPOUND SENTENCES.

1. COMPOUND sentences have been defined as those which contain two or more coördinate propositions. The propositions, as such, should be compounded, to make the sentence compound.

2. They are composed, really, of two or more sentences, generally, but not always, connected by conjunctions, and are of great variety of form and structure. It is understood that the proposition, with or without added parts, as the case may be, constitutes a sentence; and, in general, any two or more sentences may be joined into one compound one.

3. In particular : two or more simple sentences may be joined ; as, The fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom and to depart from evil is understanding : also, two or more partially compound sentences; as, You and I must go or else delay and inconvenience to all concerned will follow : also, a simple and a complex sentence; as, This will do now, but you must do better in the future if you wish to succeed : a partially compound and a complex, or a simple sentence ; as, James and Charles will go now and you will follow when it is pleasant, or you will follow at your convenience : and so on, in every variety of combination.

4. The sentence of some form is the constituent factor of compound sentences.

5. Sometimes a compound sentence is composed of two compound sentences; that is, a sentence should first be resolved into compound sentences, and these again into sim

ple or other sentences. An example is given in sentence 7 below and also in 10. For these sentences it is as well to write in the formula both the punctuation mark and the conjunction when one occurs.

6. Sometimes, as in the case of subordinate compound elements, several sentences may be connected into one by a conjunction between the last two. Several sentences, also, may follow each other without any grammatical connective. These might as well be written as separate sentences, with a full stop after each. Write them in the formulas, however, as they are, indicating the want of conjunctions by using the punctuation marks which separate them in the text. The conjunctions which make compound sentences are and, but, or.

7. The steps in analyzing compound sentences are these : (1) separate the whole structure into sentences, describing each as simple, complex, etc. : (2) separate each of these sentences into its component elements, as heretofore. A sentence of any kind which makes a factor of a compound sentence is indicated in the formula by a capital letter, with or without clauses attached to it.

QUESTIONS.

1. What are compound sentences? What must be compounded to make them ? 2. Of what, really, are they composed ? What kind of sentences may be joined to make them? 3. Give several specifications with examples. 4. What is the constituent factor of a compound sentence? 5. Of what, further, is such a sentence made up? Give an example. 6. How may several sentences be joined into a compound one? How are they sometimes found? What are the conjunctions used ? 7. Give the steps in analyzing compound sentences.

SENTENCES FOR PRACTICE.

1. In this march we traversed almost the whole circuit of the hills around Jerusalem and I then had the opportunity that I had longed for, to see the force with which we were contending

2. The troops were admirably armed: there was nothing for superfluity, but those who conceived the system knew the value of show, and the equipment of the legions was superb.

and FORMULA. A:B + C (b) C + D.

but

3. The helmets and swords were frequently inlaid with the precious metals, and the superior officers rode richlydressed chargers.

4. The common soldier was proud of the brightness of his shield and helmet : on duty both were covered ; but on their festivals the most cheering moment was that when the order was given to uncase their arms.

5. The first decided blow of the war was given ; I had incurred the full wrath of Rome : the trench between me and forgiveness was impassable ; and I felt a stern delight in the conviction that hope of truce or pardon was at an end; the seizure of the fort was a defiance of the whole power of the empire.

6. It had the higher importance of a triumph at a moment when the courageous are perplexed by doubt and the timid watch their opportunity to raise the cry of ill-fortune.

7. These thoughts banished rest from my pillow and I passed day and night in a feverish exaltation of mind ;- but if I should compute my few periods of happiness, one of them would be those days yhen I could neither eat nor sleep,

and another would be the week of victory which I am now to relate.

and but

if when and which. FORMULA. A + B: + a? <C> + D > c.

8. There was kindness under the roof of Nero and a liberal hand covered the table in

my

cell. 9. The hours passed heavily along, but they passed , anı! I was watching the last rays of my last sun, when ! sucdeply perceived a cloud rise in the direction of Rome.

10. It grew broader as I gazed; the whole mass of cloud became crimsont the sun went down and another sun seemed to have risen in its stead.

QUESTIONS.

1. Is in this march local or temporal? What did we traverse ? What hills? What opportunity had I longed for? How many ideas in longed for? What force? 2. Write the second proposition with adjective attribute. Meaning of superfluity, equipment, superb? 3. What adverbs in the sentence ? What adjectives?

Meaning of inlaid, chargers ? 4. How many sentences in this? Wbat are the simple predicates ? Both wbat? What order? 5. Is decided compared ? is full ? What is the noun corresponding with decided ? full ? stern? whole ? What is the adjective form of wrath ? forgiveness ? delight ? hope ? defiance? power ? 6. What had ? How many clauses modify moment? They are when-ci vuses, and moment denotes time; are these clauses adverbial ? 7. What did these thoughts banish ? Whence? What did I pass ? how? Does if express something that did or did not take place? · What would one period be? another ? 8. Does there denote place? What is the proof of the kindness? 9. What happened while I was watching ? Find a double object. 10. What grew broader When ? What is the simple subject of the second proposition ?

9

LESSON LIII.

PARTICIPIAL ELEMENTS.

1. THE participle, in its various uses, makes the basis of a large number of grammatical elements, and must now be considered.

2. The participle is a form of the verb and is called by some a mode. The main distinction between this form and those which are usually called modes is that the asserting word is wanting in the participle and it therefore assumes the action or state denoted by the verb.

The uses of the participle in sentences are these:

3. It is used, first, as a noun. As such it is the name of a state or action, and may be the subject or attribute of a proposition, or the object of a verb or preposition. For example : Lying is wrong. Lying is deceiving. We should avoid lying. He is accused of lying.

4. It is used, second, as a descriptive term. The assumed action or state is used as a property or quality of objects and the participle becomes adjective in its use. For example : The time of singing birds, the beloved disciple, the shorn lamb, etc.

5. The participle used as a noun may take any modification of a noun, and that used as an adjective any modifications of an adjective; at the same time, the participle, not having lost its verbal nature, may take any modifications which the verb allows. For example : The merry singing of the birds, the greatly beloved disciple, singing for pleasure, deceiving one's friends, etc.

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