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12. The reading was rendered less tedious than it otherwise would have been by the silver voice and just emphasis of Cowper, the clerk of the court.
13. This is as much too large as the other was too small. 14.
The sea was wet as wet could be,
The sands were dry as dry. 15. It would be far easier to die for my friend than to live without him.
16. This little goblin was far more clever than any of his brothers was. 17.
There the little ancient man
Cracks as fast as crack he can. 18. I know I'm further off from heaven
Than when I was a boy. 19. The richer he was the more did he love and hoard his money.
20. The less we see of that sort of people the better off we are, always.
21. He is no more drunk than I am crazy.
22. No man can look so wise as he can and for so long a time.
23. He pleaded the case of his client as eloquently as ever lawyer did, but all was in vain.
24. The farther off a tyrant is removed from me, the better pleased am I.
25. The sooner she returns to her home, the warmer shall her welcome from me be.
GENERAL.—Tell what are compared in each sentence and how the parts agree or differ. For example: in 1, the caution with which she went through the halls is compared with the caution which the fear of death could inspire, and the first is as great as the second.
PARTICULAR.–1. With what degree of caution did she go? 2. With wbat is hoeing corn compared ? What two times are contrasted? What mode and tense is weed ? 3. How jolly did Ed. May used to be? Does used express a full verbal idea ? 4. What does just modify? What are the two simple predicates? 5. What word without any syntax? What ellipsis in the sentence? 6. Com plete the second predicate. 7. Write this sentence, changing dif ference to the adjective form. What are the two simple predicates ? 8. What are those girls compared with ? Does so follow a negative here ? 9. What does that stand for? What is that in the second sentence? Substitute a word for sundoron. Parse to a boy as a phrase. 10. What is given ? What is taken ? Compare the two adverbs. 11. Does take up express more than one idea ? Interpret the three articles. 12. What does by the voice, etc., modify? What is the simple predicate of the than clause ? Compare tedious in two ways? 13. What kind of comparison is here made ? 14. Complete the second line. What are the two simple propositions ? 15. Is this a complex sentence? What are the two subjects ?' 16. What does than connect ? 17. Is cracks a transitive verb here? Supply the ellipsis between than and when. 19. What is the first simple predicate? 20. Does better off express two ideas ? 21. Is drunk compared ? 22. What are the two simple predicates ? 23. Did what ? All what? 24. What word in the first clause answers to better in the second ? 25. What is the quickness of her return compared with ?
SOME ADVERBIAL PHRASE-ELEMENTS.
1. SOME peculiar phrase-elements have been excluded from sentences thus far, because they would be more readily understood after the preceding lesson on clauses denoting
comparison. They are such as denote degree, quantity, measure and comparison.
2. Degree may be denoted (a) by some adverb modifying the word - adjective or adverb—to which it is joined, and making its meaning more intense; as, very good, strikingly handsome, exceedingly well. The degree so denoted is either positive or comparative.
3. Degree is also denoted (6) by phrases expressing excess, defect, or comparison ; as, neat to nicety, a gentleman to his finger nails, learned in nothing, small for = compared with his age. The degree so denoted may be either comparative or absolute.
4. Degree is also denoted (c) directly by measure ; this is done by numerals joined to the standard of measurement. For example: He is ten years old ; is old is the predicate; how old is he ? years old, years being the measurement of age ; how many years ? ten; ten years, then, modifies old, and expresses the degree or measure of age. So in the ditch is four feet deep ; is deep is the predicate, feet is the measure of depth, and four is the exact number of feet; four feet, then, modifies deep by expressing the degree or measure of depth.
How are years and feet to be parsed ? As nouns without case—that is, any of the named cases-after old and deep, denoting degree or measure. There is no need to torture the sentence by supplying a preposition.
5. (a) Degree is also denoted by phrases expressing a kind of comparison. For example: The speech was good enough for the occasion ; enough indefinitely expresses degree of goodness, and the occasion is that with which the speech is compared, or that with reference to which the assertion of the sentence is made ; the occasion and the speech, that is, were equal.
(6) Again: The speech was too good for the occasion ; in this, too denotes excess indefinitely, and the occasion denotes that compared with which the goodness of the speech was in excess; the occasion and the speech, that is, were unequal.
(c) Such phrases are analyzed by saying that enough and too modify by denoting degree indefinitely, and that the phrase modifies the same word by denoting that with which the comparison is made.
(d) How are too and for to be parsed ? Too is an adverb modifying good, and for shows the relation between occasion and enough, just as the clause of comparison corresponds with the word of quality, manner, etc.
6. Degree, then, may be expressed in three forms; positively, but without fixed standard ; as, very long, long to excess; as denoting equality with something; as, long enough for use; as denoting inequality with something; as, too long for use.
7. Degree of difference, or measure of excess of one thing over another, may be denoted, (a) indefinitely, by adverbs prefixed; as, he is much older; by phrases expressing some exact measure of difference; as, he is (by) ten years older ; by comparison with something else ; as, he is as much older as he is wiser.
8. Sometimes the infinitive phrase is used to express comparison; as, it is too stormy for going out, or to go out; it is good enough for use, or to use.
9. To these may be added two other forms of phrases.
(a.) He could do no less than to assist. In this sentence, to assist expresses, in a manner, one side of a comparison of which the other side is no less : no less is the object of coulil do, and than connects to assist to the phrase no less. This construction is nearly equivalent to those considered above.
(6.) She was the most beautiful of all. In this sentence,
most denotes degree of beauty; all denotes those with whom she is compared. Of all, then, modifies she, as denoting those among whom the comparison of beauty is made.
10. All these phrases of comparison may be considered as adverbial in their office, as they are for the most part joined to adjectives and other terms admitting such modifiers. They do not make complex sentences.
11. The principle of the last paragraph but one may be extended one step further, to clauses following the superlative degree. For example : This is the most serious mistake that ever was maile; what does the that-clause modify ? that obviously represents the noun mistake, but the clause has reference to all the mistakes involved in the superlative most serious: of all the serious mistakes made this is the most serious. To write the sentence in another form, this is the most-that-ever-was-made-serious mistake. This view seems to make the clause correspond with the superlative word most and to modify what it does, namely, serious. The same would be true if the superlative were indicated by the termination est.
NOTE.—The teacher will dispose of these clauses in this way, or call them adjective after the noun, as he decides.
1. What phrase-elements are here considered ? 2. How is degret denoted, first ? Give illustrations. What is the character of the degree so denoted ? 3. How, next, is degree denoted ? Give illustrations ? What is the character of this form ? 4. How next is degree denoted ? Explain the examples given. In, he is ten years old, how is years parsed ? 5. How is degree denoted next? Explain the examples in (a), (b), (c) and (d). Tell how to analyze and parse good enough, or too good, for me. 6. Recapitulate the modes of ex: