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(a) Both clauses may be affirmative, as in the example above.

(6) One may be negative and one affirmative; as, We shall not go, if it rains; not going is contingent on its raining. We shall go, if it does not rain; going is contingent on its not raining.

(c) Both clauses may be negative; as, We shall not go unless it is pleasant : not going is contingent on its not being pleasant.

4. More perplexing differences of meaning arise from the use of different tenses in the if-clause. The following are the principal varieties : (a) PRESENT TIME :

If I have a dollarwhich I am not certain about–I will

lend it to you.

If I am there—I do not know whether I shall be or notI will speak.

Unless some one comes—which is uncertain but very urgent - he will die.

If help comes—which we hope, but are not sure of—all will be right.

If I have offended you—as it seems—I am sorry.

In these sentences, the supposition is doubtful, and so the contingent action is doubtful. (6) PAST TIME:

If I had a dollar-which I have not-I would lend it to you.

If I were youas I am not-I would go.

If thou hadst been here-as thou wast not-my brother had not died.

In these sentences, the supposition is contrary to fact, and so the opposite of the action contingent on it is true.

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(C) FUTURE TIME:

I will give you a dollar, if you will gowill you ?

What will you give me, if I will tell you ?-as perhaps I will.

I will go, if he will promise to gowill he ?

In these sentences the act supposed is future and uncertain ; when it becomes a fact—if it does—then the action contingent on it becomes a fact also.

Some contingent clauses are future in fact, though not in form; as, if it should rain, we shall not go.

QUESTIONS.

1. What is the office of some clauses? What connective expresses this relation ? What are the negative forms? 2. Illustrate by examples. 3. Illustrate by sentences the different cases of affirmative and negative clauses. 4. The same, with suppositions made (a) in present time; (b) in past time; (c) in future time. Find other examples. State the general principle with reference to each set of examples.

SENTENCES FOR PRACTICE.

1. If a man's soul is in his pocket, he should be punished there.

2. The boy is willing to do any amount of work, if it is called play.

3. If he had his way, he would do nothing in a hurry.

4. If the boy felt little exhilaration on Thanksgiving day, he ate a good deal.

5. If there was anything which he hated, it was spreading hay after the mowers.

6. Except ye repent, ye shall all likewise perish.
7. Unless it had been true, I would not have said it.

8. If a country boy were wise, he would stay at that age when he would enjoy himself most.

9. All would have been lost in that hour of misery, unless succor had come from this unexpected quarter.

10. I saw very plainly that if we had kept aboard we should all have been safe.

11. Unless you will do me this kindness, I must give up all hopes of the prize. 12. If it were always rain,

The flowers would be drowned ;
If it were always sun,

No flowers would be found. 13. If our king be taken from us,

We are left to guard his son. 14. I am happy if you are prosperous. 15. If it were not so, I would have told you.

QUESTIONS.

Ask about each supposition in the sentences what it implies.

1. Where is there? What man is a man? 2. What is really the simple object of to do? What is formally, that is, grammatically? 3. Does he have his way? How, then, about doing things in a hurry? 4. What are contrasted here? Does if mean very much the same as though here? 5. What does it represent ?

Was there anything he hated ? 6. What tense is repent? What time does the clause express ? 7. Was it true? What mode and tense is would have said ? 8. Does he stay at that age? Is he, then, wise? Is the when-clause adverbial? 9. Did succor come? Was all lost? 10. What is the office of the that-clause? Were all safe? 11. What direct and indirect objects in this sentence? 12. Is it always rain? Are there no flowers ? What does it stand for? 13. What mode and tense is be taken? 14. On what does my happimess depend ? 15. Mode and tense of were?

LESSON XLVIII.

COMPLEX SENTENCES : CONCESSIVE AND ADVERSATIVE

CLAUSES.

1. CONCESSIVE clauses are used to grant something as a cause or reason in opposition to the statement of another clause.

2. This concession is made in two ways :

(a.) By clauses introduced by though, although, or albeit, and however ; for example, Though he was rich, yet for our sakes he became poor ; notwithstanding what you say, I cannot believe the story; however this may be, the fact remains. The first clause of all these sentences allows something which is opposed to what is stated in the second clause, but the second is still true, notwithstanding this opposition of meaning.

(6.) The indefinite relatives are used in the same way, sometimes; as, whichever road you take, you will reach the place = though you should take one or the other road, etc. Whoever says this, it is false = Though any one says this, etc. While is also used in the same way : e.g., while this may be true, the fact remains = though this, etc.

3. A concession may be made, also, (a) by such forms of expression as, Brave as he was, this daunted his courage = Though he was very brave, etc. Whatever may be done, etc. (6) By a phrase, equivalent in meaning to a concessive clause, as, despite, or notwithstanding, his bad temper, he is not a bad man = Though he has a bad temper, etc. These last, containing only one clause, are simple sentences.

4. Properly speaking, all these concessive clauses are followed by clauses containing an adversative conjunction and

so they are formally opposed to each other. This conjunction, however, is not always expressed, but when expressed makes a peculiar sentence not yet described. Without this the sentences may be called complex, and the concessive clause may be taken as the dependent one.

5. The main difference in meaning between though and although is that the latter is considered to be more emphatic. Albeit is very little used.

QUESTIONS.

1. How are the clauses considered in this lesson used ? 2. What is the first form of making concessions ? Illustrate by examples. What is the second form ? Illustrate by examples. 3. What other forms of clause make a concession ? What phrases do the same? 4. By what are all concessive clauses really followed ? What kind of sentence are these? 5. What is the difference of meaning between though and although?

SENTENCES FOR PRACTICE.

1. Though an angel from heaven should declare the truth of it, I should not believe it.

2. However this event may turn out, the cause is lost beyond all hope.

3. Cautious as the general had always been, this opportunity was eagerly embraced.

4. Whatever excuse you may offer (= though you offer any excuse you please or can) the offence is unpardonable.

5. Though hand join in hand, the wicked shall not be unpunished.

6. I liked the elephants a great deal better, though they were not dressed in crimson velvet at all, and had no golden towers on their backs.

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