13. You could not see a cloud,

Because no cloud was in the sky. 14. The roads were impassable ; so I was obliged to stay where I was. 15.

Then home we will hasten

While yet we can see,
For no watchman is waiting

and for me. 16. As no tools have been provided, we must e’en do without them.

17. This is granted; consequently, let there be no delay.

18. As he had never expected so great success his delight was unbounded.

19. The man has done all that he promised : he must, accordingly, be paid all he was promised.

20. Since I had no money of my own to give, I could but pray that God would bless your majesty.


1. What was the reason of sleeping quietly? What does very express ? 2. What was my business? Why? What does otherwise modify? 3. Where did I look? What for? Why? What reason for this reason? What does far modify? What does at sea modify? 4. What does not follow? What is the because-clause the reason of ? 5. What is the reason of the first statement ? 6. What is the simple predicate of the because-clause? 7. Is unto me adverbial? Which of these clauses is causal ? 8 Which of these clauses is causal ? 9. What is the effect of seeking thy precepts ? 10. Why have I no choice ? 11. What is the ground of our resolve ? 12. Is the principal idea of the first predicate in the verb, or in the adverb ? Write the line so that the predicate shall directly express sulkiness. 13. Why could you not see a cloud ? What is the simple predicate in the second line? 14. Which is the causal clause? Is was a copula? What is 80 ?

15. Whither will we hasten? What does yet denote? Is for you adverbial ? 16. What is we must do without them the consequence of? 17. What is the ground of the command ? 18. What was the measure of his delight ? Why? 19. Which is the causal clause ? 20. What does since connect? What does that connect ?



1. FINAL clauses are of two kinds; those which denote purpose, and those which denote result, of the action expressed by the principal clause. In meaning they are the opposite of causal clauses ; these denote the source or origin of an act; those the end or termination of it.

2. Clauses of purpose denote what an act is done for ; not the motive, but what end it is directed to : clauses of result denote what comes from the act expressed by the principal verb. The connective of both is THAT. For example : Speak, that I may know thee: that is, knowing thee is the purpose of the speaking which is commanded. Speak so that you can be heard: that is, being heard is the result of speaking so.

3. The connective that stands by itself in clauses of purpose. These may denote an affirmative or a negative purpose; the latter is expressed by that not or lest; take heed that ye sin not, or lest ye sin. Another variety contains a negative in both clauses; as, do not stir, lest you upset the boat. That, in these clauses, is equivalent to in order that, to the end that.

4. The connective that, in clauses of result, is associated

with the words so and such in the principal clause, and denotes what follows from the indefinite degree or manner or quality of what these words are joined with ; as, he came so late that nothing was done ; nothing being done was the result of that degree of lateness expressed by so late : he acted so that all thought him mad ; that all thought him mad was the result of that manner of acting expressed by acted so: he was such a liar that no one believed him; no one's believing him was the result of his being such a liar.

5. It is important that this relation of clauses of result should be clearly understood, and therefore another example is added. He had done me so many favors that I could not ask for more. What had he done ? Many favors. How many ? So many. How many is so many ? Not ten or twenty, but enough to prevent asking for more; the result of receiving so many is that I could not ask for more.

.6. Formally, so or such and that are correlatives ; really, the indefinite idea expressed by so or such is made definite by the clause of result introduced by that.

7. The corresponding words in these clauses may stand together, or they may be separated by intervening words; as, We walked rapidly, so that we were very tired, or, we walked so rapidly that, etc. On the other hand, so is not always followed by that.


1. What kinds of final clauses? What is their relation to causal clauses? 2. What do clauses of purpose denote? Clauses of result? Give examples. What is the common connective of both ? 3. What may that-clauses denote? What word is equivalent to that not ? What is the meaning of that in such cases ? 4. What is the connective in clauses of result? Explain by examples. 5. Give another example. Find others. 6. What is the relation of so- and

7. Where may the corresponding

such-elements to that-clauses ? words stand ?




NOTE. — The relations of these clauses will be best represented by writing both connecting and corresponding term above the sign; thus,

such that

1. Praise between man and man is so rare that we know neither how to bestow it nor how to receive it.

2. So translucent was it, that I could look for miles into its clear depths.

3. Be silent, that you may hear.

4. The mind and the character can be so symmetrical that they lose all charm and all significance.

5. He was only trying to invent a new mode of locomotion, that he might encourage his legs.

6. He had such a longing for them that he pined away.

7. Thanksgiving day was so subdued by going to meeting that the boy could not enjoy it.

8. The crops were in such a state that they could not be gathered. 9. The weather was so clear that the sea did not

rage. 10. There are so many bright spots in the life of a farmer's boy that I think I should like to live it over again.

11. Do thy diligence lest the reward come not at the last.

12. You should be careful what you say, that you may be understood.

13. Take good heed, lest ye hear in vain.

14. It is wise to do one's best at all times, that success may at least be deserved.

15. So many thoughts crowd into the mind that it is difficult to choose




1. How many objects must between always have ? What is that we knoro, etc., the result of? What phrases are made to correspond by neither and nor? 2. Does the that-clause denote purpose or result? 3. For what pu pose are you to be silent ? 4. What does that they lose, etc., result from ? 5. What was he trying to do? With what purpose ? 6. What was the result of having such a longing ? Is for them adverbial ? 7. Of what is the that-clause the result? 8. How is the meaning of such explained in the sentence? 9. Change this to a clause denoting cause, followed by the result stated as an inference. 10. Do the same with this sentence. 11. What is to be the result of doing thy diligence ? 12. What result will follow being careful ? 13. Of what is not hearing in vain the result? 14. What is wise? To what purpose is it wise? 15. What makes it difficult to choose? What is difficult ?



1. SOME clauses are joined to the principal to grant something on which the principal action of the sentence is contingent or dependent. The connective of these clauses is if, which signifies grant, or allow, on the supposition that. The negative form is unless, or except.

2. For example; We shall go, if it is pleasant: going is contingent on its being pleasant. The if-clause, expressing something uncertain, makes the action of the principal clause doubtful, and it is said to be in the subjunctive mode.

3. Many cases arise under this general statement which will be best understood by examples.

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