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11.

Old Caspar took it from the boy,

Who stood expectant by. 12. He experienced a kind of delightful wickedness in indulging his dislike of Sunday.

13. Column and arch and dome rise upon the vision in painted light.

14. The gobbler does not eat one grasshopper while any one is watching him.

15. He knows that for months to come the pantry will contain golden treasures.

16. Then I called a council whether I should take back the raft.

17. He wonders next how much the horses cost.

18. Those who heard him grumble at the neglect with which he was treated would have supposed him ripe for rebellion. 19. But this ill humor lasted only till the throne was really in danger. 20. It was precisely when those whom the sovereign had loaded with honors shrank from his side that the country gentlemen, so surly and mutinous in the season of his prosperity, rallied round him in a body.

21. There the historian of the Roman Empire thought of the days when Cicero pleaded the cause of Italy against Verres, and when, before a sepate which still retained some show of freedom, Tacitus thundered against the oppression of Africa.

22. Hastings advanced to the bar and bent his knee. 23. On Linden when the sun was low,

All bloodless lay the untrodden snow. 24. Fitz-James looked round, yet scarce believed

The witness that his sight received. 25. The queen asked him whether he had forgotten who it was he was speaking to.

QUESTIONS.

1. What conjunction might be supplied ? What does before connect ? 2. Is the “vision" described an indefinite or a definite one ? Is the that-clause descriptive? What is the common form of adoron ? What is the indirect object of gave? 3. Express of human mold in one word. What is the antecedent of her ? What does the as-clause modify? What does it denote? What is the meaning of prime ? 4. What does the as-clause denote ? 5. What is the office of the first that-clause? Of the second ? Does in life modify occupy or positions ? Who are meant by them? Compare all the adjectives. 6. What idea is the idea? What is the simple predicate of the subordinate clause? What man is a man? 7. Parse the that-clause. 8. Parse the that-clause. 9. Can you substitute another word for drone 10. Parse the that-clause. 11. What kind of verb is stood ? 12. What is the simple object of experienced ? Be sure you are right in this ! 13. Is upon his vision adverbial or objective? What number is the verb? 14. For how long does the gobbler, etc.? What particular gobbler is meant? 15. What does for months to come modify? Is golden compared ? What part of speech is that ? 16. Is there an omission of any thing necessary to the sense ? 17. What tense is cost ? 18. Find a double object. What does for rebellion denote about ripe? 19. What does but connect ? What does really modify? How long did this ill humor last ? 20. What does precisely modify? What does that connect ? Give the mode and tense of each verb. 21. What is the relation of the two when-clauses to each other ? 22. Is to the bar objective or adverbial ? 23. Write this in prose order. Is untrodden an adjective or a participle ? What is the simple predicate of the principal clause? Of the subordinate? 24. Is yet the connective of the two predicates ? Is the that-clause descriptive ? 25. How many clauses in this sentence ? Is any connective to be supplied ? Make this sentence into a better one.

LESSON XLV.

COMPLEX SENTENCES: CAUSAL CLAUSES.

1. It is difficult to determine whether causal clauses should be considered as subordinate to a leading clause, or as coördinate with it. In the sentence, we must do this because it is right, the proposition it is right stands as the reason for the proposition we must do this : is the latter grammatically dependent on the former? If we expand the connective, the sentence might be, we must do this for the causeadverbial phrase modifying dothat-sentence-article, doing for the proposition following what the noun-article does for the word causeit is right. There is a relation between the two clauses, for they do not mean the same if the connective is omitted, but the connection is not the same as in the case of a relative pronoun or relative adverb. Still, they are as near to being subordinate as they are to being coördinate, and it is as well to regard them, as they are generally classified, as making complex sentences.

2. Causal clauses are those which express the cause or reason of the action of the principal predicate. The principal connectives of these clauses are, for, because, since, as, inasmuch as, whereas.

3. They denote

(1) The cause of an effect, or that which produces an effect; as,

The
crop

has failed because there has been no rain. The latter clause expresses the cause of the fact stated in the former.

(2) The reason of something, that which leads to results, that on which it rests as a ground; as, Obey your parents,

for this is right. The latter clause expresses the reason of the command in the former clause.

(3) Motive, that which leads to an act; or, more generally, its origin or source; as, He did this because he was ambitious, The latter clause expresses the motive of his doing this.

4. It is difficult, sometimes, to distinguish among these three kinds of clauses, which for purposes of grammar may all be classed as causal, but it is a good mental exercise to question them all closely.

5. Sometimes the causal clause stands as the leading one without a connective, and is followed by the statement based upon it, which latter is accompanied by the words, therefore, wherefore, hence, etc. For example; This is right, therefore we must do it. The proposition we must do it is an inference or deduction from the first proposition, this is right. Such clauses are called illative, and the connectives are called illatives. Other illative connectives are, accordingly, consequently, so, then.

6. “Causal connectives indicate a proposition from which something follows; they correspond conversely with the illative particles which point out that which does follow.”Worcester's Dictionary.

7. “Of these connectives because is the strongest and most emphatic ; for is not quite so strong; since is less formal and more incidental than because ; as is still more incidental than since, and points to some existing fact by way of assigning a reason; insomuch as seems to carry

with it a kind of qualification which does not belong to the rest. Whereas is used to introduce resolutions.” — Webster's Dictionary

QUESTIONS.

1. Are causal clauses to be regarded as dependent ? Explain an example or two, and state the conclusion. 2. Define causal clauses. What are the principal connectives? 3. What do they denote ? 4. Can a distinction be made among them? 5. Explain illative clauses by examples. 6. How does Worcester's Dictionary distinguish causal and illative connectives? 7. Give Webster's account of the force of the causal connectives.

SENTENCES FOR PRACTICE.

1. I slept quietly all night, for I was very weary.

2. It was my business to go before the flood-tide began, for otherwise I might not be able to reach the shore at all.

3. I looked on both sides for a proper place to land, for I was not willing to be driven far up the river, because I hoped to see some ship at sea.

4. It does not follow that I wish to be pickled in brine, because I like a salt-water plunge at Nahant.

5. And right is right, since God is God.
6. At last, because the time was ripe,

I chanced upon the poets. 7. Inasmuch as ye have done it unto these, ye have done it unto me.

8. I believe; therefore, have I spoken.
9. I will walk at liberty, for I seek thy precepts.
10. As you command me, I have no choice.

11. Whereas all this and more is true, we resolve to endure it no longer. 12. The moon was shining sulkily,

Because she thought the sun
Had got no business to be there

After the day was done.

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