GENERAL.–Find all the adverbial phrases in the sentences. Tell precisely what each temporal connective joins and denotes. Ask and answer, about each sentence, such questions as these :

Up to what time does till mean? What was not done till that time? Which is first in order of time, being much older, or smiling at them again?

PARTICULAR.-1. When by inference did he smile again? 2. What part of speech is hickory? 3. When does he enjoy his work ? 4. What makes the boy's eyes dilate? 5. Write the comparison of busy. 6. Does as express a reason as well as time? 7. How often did he go? 8. What is the complex attribute of the first proposition ? 9. What does it stand for? Does it mean anything of itself? Does it ever do so? 10. Substitute a participle for quickly, to make the line more vivid.




The principal local relations expressed by clauses are :

1. Place in which the action of the principal verb is done; as, he lives where his father lives.

2. Place from which the action of the principal verb starts; as, he came whence his father came.

3. Place to or toward which that action tends; as, he went whither his father went. Where is generally used in place of whither.

4. The principal local connectives are where, whence and whither, which are also used as interrogative words.

5. As already noticed, these connectives are used with

clauses performing other offices; as, come to the spot where we met (adjective) ; tell me where you live (substantive).

Where also expresses relations not always reducible to the notion of place : as, where every precaution has been taken, no one can be blamed

If in any place, etc., or on the supposition that, etc.

Whence denotes, also, the source or origin of what follows; as, the general disobeyed orders; whence or (hence) our disaster.

6. Where denotes in which place, or in what place? Whither denotes to which place, or to what place? Whence denotes from which place, or from what place ?

7. Ever and soever are added to these words to make their application indefinite or general; as, wheresoever = in any place whatever.


1-3. What are the principal local relations expressed by clauses ? 4. What are the principal local connectives? 5. What other offices do they perform ? 6. What does each of these connectives denote? 7. What is the force of ever or soever added to them ?





1. Through the great lofts above the hay, where the swal lows nested, the winter wind whistled.

2. Where your treasure is there will your heart be also.

3. Then they travel along all day, where neither tuft nor turf was seen.

4. I could not go back where the gunner had stored the powder for a fresh supply. 5. Back to its heavenly source thy being goes,

Swift as the comet wheels to whence he rose.

6. Where'er we tread 'tis holy ground.
7. He was found just where we left him.
8. He departed whither he would.

9. Wheresoever the carcass is, the eagles are gathered together.

10. He lay down to rest where night overtook him.


Give the precise connection of each local connective. 1. Are you sure that the where-clause is adverbial here?

2. Where will your heart be? 3. Where do they travel ? 4. Supply a phrase which will make the where-clause adjective in office. 5. What is the simple predicate in the first line? What is the object of to? 6. What is the antecedent of it in 'tis ? 7. Where was he found ? 8. What does whither modify? 9. What is the simple predicate of the first clause? 10. Does the where-clause tell definitely the place of lying down? Does anything in the sentence ?



1. ADVERBS express the definite manner of an action, as do also adverbial phrases ; adverbial clauses express manner indefinitely, or rather relatively to the manner of some other action.

2. The principal connective of these clauses is as, which is also used to denote a variety of relations: (see Lesson LVIII) for example; Do as you please.

3. This word really denotes a correspondence or agreement between the actions expressed by the verbs of the two prop

ositions; in the sentence given, no definite manner of doing is stated, but the doing and the pleasure of the doer are to correspond. Clauses which correspond with adverbs in the principal clause are more definite, and are considered in Lesson XLIX.


1. What do adverbs express ? Adverbial clauses ? 2. What is the principal connective of these clauses ? 3. What does this word express ? Illustrate by examples.


1. All turned out as I had anticipated.

2. The true poet sees things not always as they are, but as they ought to be.

3. Socrates died as a philosopher dies. 4. It is done as thou hast commanded. 5. He will stir his fins now and then as an elephant moves

his ears.

6. As I came will I return.
7. It shall be done as you have said.
8. He was living as his father before him had lived.
9. Then you must go and come as it pleases you.
10. The lesson must be recited as the teacher directed.

11. I do with my friends as I do with my books.
>12. Forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors.

13. Does the soul put forth friends as the tree puts forth leaves ?

14. Do thou bear the banner, as it was borne before.

We scorn his fiercest anger,
As we loathe his foreign gold !




1. All worldly shapes shall melt in gloom,

The sun himself shall die,
Before this mortal shall assume
Its immortality.

FORMULA. A, B > a?.

2. I saw a vision in my sleep

That gave my spirit strength to sweep

Adown the gulf of time i 3. I saw the last of human mold,

That shall creation's death behold,

As Adam saw her prime. 4. I do not wonder at it now, as I look back.

5. I believe that a good school should be one that will fit men and women for the humble positions that the great mass of them must occupy in life.

6. All the students get the idea that a man must be in public life.

7. I am perfectly aware that I am not revealing pleasant truths.

8. I repeat the proposition, that repose is the cradle of power.

9. We touched at several islands on which we drove a profitable trade.

10. Word was given that all seemed hopeful.

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