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in any sense, dependent elements. The sentences are, strictly, neither simple nor complex; they should be described as sentences with a clause introduced by that, or whatever the interrogative word is, as subject or attribute.

11. A device for expressing subject- or attribute-clauses is necessary. They stand by themselves as peculiar constructions, and need expressing just as they are. The simplest way to bring them into the notation is to write their connective, or pro-sentence, before or after the letter representing this clause; as, That you have wronged me doth appear in this = that-A; the question is what shall we do next = A-what. This notation will show the structure, and the sentence may

be described as one having a clause introduced by that or what, etc., for its subject or attribute.

QUESTIONS.

1. What offices have substantive clauses? 2. What is their peculiarity? 3. Under what two heads do they all come? 4. Give examples and show the use of the interrogative word. 5. How are these clauses joined to the other parts of the sentence? What, then, is the office of the interrogatives? 6. How shall sentences containing these clauses be named ? 7. In what relations are they used as objective clauses? Give examples of each. 8. Give a full explanation of the word that, with examples. 9. How shall that-clauses be described ? 10. How shall sentences containing them be named ? 11. How sball they be indicated in the notation ?

PRACTICE..

Analyze the following sentences, paying special attention to substantive clauses. Parse each one as a clause.

1. He did not know that it was so late.

2. John felt that he had sacredly kept every lock of hair which had been given to him by any of those girls.

3. He tells at home that he has seen the most wonderful book that ever was.

4. He does not exactly know what he is sent home for.

5. I have noticed that boys don't care much for conversation with the owners of fruit trees.

NOTE.It often represents a clause-subject which stands after the verb.

6. It is not true that this is the worst thing a boy can read.

7. He reads in the Old Testament that when Moses came to holy ground he put off his shoes.

that when

FORMULA. A > a: (ba) a3. 8. He wondered whether she noticed how awkward he was. 9 It made no difference because it was easy. 10. He hid them, he did not know where. 11. Where I was I yet knew not.

12. The young scape-grace said he was only going to dig sweet-flag

13. That young lady never knew what a cruel thing she had done.

14. The old lady inquired what had passed between the genie and her son during her absence.

15. No boy can explain why he stops to stone the frogs in 7 the pond.

16. It was a wild and rocky upland where our great pasture was. > 17. The truth is that I am tired of ticking. 18. I am astonished that

you
should

say so. 19. The reason is that poetry demands more culture in the reader than prose.

20. This is not what I should like to write about.

21. Our fate hangs on what alliances we form.

22. Only the country boy knows what a bardship it is to tie on stiff shoes.

23. I used to wish sometimes that I could make that grindstone fly into a dozen pieces.

24. The fact is that the amusements of a boy in the coun. try are not many.

25. I will give the money to whomsoever you shall send to receive it.

GENERAL QUESTIONS.

Find a double object in the sentences. Find a dependent clause subordinate to a dependent clause. Find an adverb, an indirect object and an adverbial phrase, which all modify the verb of a subordinate clause. In which sentence does the subordinate proposition come first? Is the where-clause in 16 adverbial ? etc.

LESSON XLI.

COMPLEX SENTENCES : ADVERBIAL CLAUSES DENOTING

TIME, OR TEMPORAL CLAUSES.

1. ADVERBIAL clauses of time are of great variety and number, denoting all the circumstances which adverbs denote, and others besides.

2. This is to be carefully noted about adverbial clauses; that the entire clause expresses for the sentence the same idea which the connective expresses for the clause. For example: James lives where his father lives : where his father lives denotes the place of James' living, as where does of his father's living. He does as he was told : as he was told denotes the manner of his doing, and as that of being told.

He came when he was called : when he was called denotes the time of coming, as when that of being called. The connective may indicate only in a general way, and sometimes quite indefinitely, the idea of time, place, etc., but still it is the same for its clause as the whole clause is for the sentence.

3. Temporal clauses denote various relations of time, the reference being to the principal clause. Keeping in mind that they are dependent on the principal clause, they may denote that

(1) The time of the principal verb is antecedent to the time of the subordinate clause ; as, we go before the bell rings.

(2.) The time of the principal verb is the same with that of the subordinate clause; as, we go when the bell rings, or while the bell rings.

(3.) The time of the principal verb is subsequent to that of the subordinate verb ; as, we go after the bell rings.

4. The principal connectives of temporal clauses are before and after, which make the time of the action of the principal clause antecedent or subsequent to that of their own clause; when, which signifies at the time that; while, which signifies during the time that ; till, which signifies up to the time that; and since, which signifies from the time that, and as, which denotes almost any relation of time.

5. When is also used interrogatively: before, after, till and since are used also as prepositions.

6. Ever and soever are added to when, making the meaning at any time that.

7. When and while and since are used to denote other relations than those of time; as, he remained in the ranks, when = though at the same time, he might have been promoted : while all this is true = though this is true, etc.; I will do it since = because, inasmuch as, you desire it.

QUESTIONS.

1. What do adverbial clauses denote ? 2. What is to be noted about adverbial clauses ? Give the illustrations in the text. Find others. How do these differ from other adverbs ? 3. To what do clauses of time refer? What are the principal relations expressed by them? Illustrate by examples. 4. What are the principal connectives, with their signification ? 5. How, otherwise, are these words used ? 6. What is the force of ever and soever added to when? 7. In what other senses are while, when and since used ?

PRACTICE.

SENTENCES TO BE ANALYZED : 1. He did not smile at them again till he was much older.

2. One of the best things in farming is gathering hickory nuts after the frost has cracked the burrs. 3. He enjoys his work as he goes along.

4. The boy's eyes dilate with pleasure as he steals some of the treasures out of its wondrous pages.

5. I have been very busy since you came.

6. He blushed again as he thought of his ill-fitting shoes. 39. He went whenever he could find a good excuse.

8. John was in the meadow by the river when the bobolink sang so gayly.

9. It seemed a good thing that we could rest on Saturday, when we were tired, and play on Sunday, when we were rested. 10. Still is the story told,

When the goodman mends his armor,

And trims his helmet plume
When the good-wife's shuttle merrily

Goes quickly through the loom.

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