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11. What is the reason that you can never succeed ?
12. The question whom shall we send, is the most important of all.
13. I had grave doubts whether I was right.
14. The inquiry why this had been done was not now possible.
15. Then he gave a hitch to his trousers, which is a trick all sailors learn.
NOTE.—The questions are numbered to correspond with the number of the sentence in the exercise preceding them.
1. What echo is the echo? What is the meaning of reverberated ? Can you substitute some other word ? 2. Is the which-clause definitive or descriptive ? Change this clause so that height shall be high, and there shall be no preposition in it. 3. Do any adjectives in this sentence not admit of comparison? Never means at no time ; how is this meaning restricted in this sentence ? Four words in the sentence cannot be understood from the sentence alone ; what are they? 4. Is the that-clause descriptive or definitive ? What is the opposite of deep ? of living ? of exclusively? of human ? 5. Write this in prose order. 6. Is spicy compared ? is native? Can you change of resplendent hue to a compound adjective? Can you change adieu to a Saxon word ? 7. Is the who-clause definitive ? What does in show the relation between ? Be sure you are right! 8. Can you take get-sight together as expressing one idea? In parsing which, look twice before you give its syntax. 9. Is the that-clause definitive? 10. What theory is the theory? When was this theory exploded ? 11. Ask this question in a simple sentence. 12. Reduce this to a simple sentence. What degree of comparison is most important of all ? 15. What is the antecedent of which ?
COMPLEX SENTENCES; ADJECTIVE CLAUSES CONTINUED.
1. THE relative pronouns, which connect adjective clauses, may be the objects of prepositions in their clause; as, The place on which we stand is holy ground. The relative in such uses is still the connective, as when it performs some other office in the sentence.
2. This construction occurs in other clauses besides adjective, but it will need no special mention when they are considered.
1. What is the office of the relative pronoun in some clauses? In such instances, what is the connective ? 2. In what other clauses is this found ?
1. In the dark forests of Russia, in which the snow lies on the ground for about eight months in the year, wolves roam about in countless troops.
2. He found his way back by the road by which he had
3. All the jewels were in a case of which my mistress kept the key.
4. The king had a daughter whom none of the courtiers had ever caught sight of.
5. A great many things now take place at which people of the old time would have greatly wondered.
6. The weapon with which the foul deed was evidently done was brought into court.
1. This is the conclusion to which I have come.
8. The traveller looked anxiously for the spring from which the water flowed.
9. We clearly saw the rocks on which the ship was surely drifting.
10. Is this the sole reward for which you have done so base a deed ?
GENERAL. —Tell about each adjective clause, whether it is descriptive or definitive. Give the principal parts of each verb in the sentences. Are you sure you can spell every word in these sentences ?
PARTICULAR.-1. Write this sentence so that the proposition will be at the beginning. Which is the better form ? 2. Write this sentence, leaving out one preposition and object. 3. What is the simple predicate of the first preposition ? Introduce a clause to define the jewels. 4. Write this sentence so that of shall not be the last word. 5. Can you substitute another word for things ? 6. What weapon is the weapon? 7. Substitute a transitive verb for come to. 8. Can you reduce this to a simple sentence and say just what this does ? 9. Where was the ship drifting ? 10. So base a deed as what?
COMPLEX SENTENCES; SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES.
1. SUBSTANTIVE Clauses perform the office of nouns, and as such are (1) subjects or (2) attributes of propositions, (3) objects of verbs and (4) of prepositions.
2. A peculiarity of these clauses is that they contain no proper connective, though they all contain a word which puts them into grammatical relation with the other part of the sentence.
3. All these clauses come under two heads; (1) those which contain an interrogative word, and (2) those which are introduced by the word that.
4. In these sentences, How I shall succeed is uncertain, My anxiety is how I shall succeed, and I do not know how I shall succeed, the clause introduced by how is, obviously, the subject, the attribute, and the object, respectively; as obviously, how modifies the verb of its clause, but it cannot be said to connect, formally, in either instance, though without this word the two parts of the sentence are not connected.
5. Besides, the subject and the attribute not being dependent but independent and necessary parts of the sentence, there is no need of any formal connection : they are joined immediately, as is the direct object and the objectclause. The indirect interrogative, then, implies, but does not formally state a connection.
6. What, then, shall be said about sentences containing such clauses ? Not to multiply terms already too numerous in Grammar, and yet to maintain real distinctions, say that these clauses are joined as a whole—that is, ipluding the interrogative words—to the verb as subject, attribute, or object.
7. As objective clauses, they may follow the verb in these relations : (a) as direct object of a transitive verb in the active voice : I will tell you how you must do this.
(6) As the object remaining after the verb in the passive voice; as, You have been told how you must do this.
(c) Objective clauses follow some verbs which do not
admit other objects without the help of a preposition; as, wonder that, wish that, care that, insist that, etc.; as, I wonder that you do so, I insist that you are right.
(d) As the object of a preposition; as, All depends on how you do this.
8. The word that, introducing substantive clauses, is a word sui generis. It is used to stand before subject-, attribute-, or object-clauses. It is really a pro-sentence, or a sentence-article. (See Webster's Dictionary.) In the sentence, The certainty is that you are right, the real nature of the word may be seen by writing in this form : you are right ; THAT is the certainty. That stands for the preceding sentence, you are right. Again, in the same sentence the makes definite the noun following, and they might be written thecertainty. So that might be regarded as pointing out, or making definite, the proposition that follows, and the two might be written thus, that you are right). It is not a connective in such cases, but really a demonstrative word, a sort of handle to hold the proposition by, which the idiom of the language requires to be used as a prefix.
9. How then shall that-clauses be described ? Say they are subject-, attribute-, or object-clauses, introduced—not connected—by that.
10. How Shall sentences with these clauses be named ? As the object, in whatever form, is a dependent element, sen. tences containing object-clauses introduced by interrogative words or by the sentence-article that make complex sentences; they do, in fact, contain an independent and a dependent clause. Those which contain a clause of either sort used as subject or attribute, contain more than one proposition, on the one hand ; these clauses, on the other hand, are not connected to the principal by a connective, and are not,